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Zeinab Takbiri, Ardeshir Ebtehaj, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, and F. Joseph Turk

1980 ; Hallikainen et al. 1986 , 1987 ). Hence, snow cover has a time-varying effect on snowfall upwelling signal. Physical and empirical approaches have been developed for microwave retrievals of snowfall. Skofronick-Jackson et al. (2004) presented a physical method to retrieve snowfall during a blizzard over the eastern United States using high-frequency observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B) instrument. Kim et al. (2008) simulated atmospheric profiles of a

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Stephanie M. Wingo, Walter A. Petersen, Patrick N. Gatlin, Charanjit S. Pabla, David A. Marks, and David B. Wolff

.g., setting a horizontal grid spacing significantly smaller than the gate size of the ground-based scanning radars would not be a wise practice). Generally, we recommend SIMBA column grid spacing be set to at least 500 m in the horizontal and at least 250 m in the vertical planes, and we note that for some applications larger grid spacing on the order of 1 km may be more relevant (e.g., comparisons of ground-based radar and satelliteborne passive and active microwave observations at the pixel scale or

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Robert A. Houze Jr., Lynn A. McMurdie, Walter A. Petersen, Mathew R. Schwaller, William Baccus, Jessica D. Lundquist, Clifford F. Mass, Bart Nijssen, Steven A. Rutledge, David R. Hudak, Simone Tanelli, Gerald G. Mace, Michael R. Poellot, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Angela K. Rowe, Jennifer C. DeHart, Luke E. Madaus, Hannah C. Barnes, and V. Chandrasekar

. With its onboard Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and 13-channel GPM Microwave Imager (GMI), the GPM satellite extends into future decades the global surveillance of precipitation provided until 2014 by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and broadens coverage to higher latitudes, where many of Earth’s snow-covered mountain ranges are located. GPM also serves as a reference for other satellites carrying a variety of microwave imaging or sounding radiometers [see Hou et

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