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Haolu Shang, Li Jia, and Massimo Menenti

-storage capacity of the whole region. The surface runoff could be estimated based on that. In this paper, we retrieved the fractional area of water-saturated soil (WSS) and standing water from the polarization difference brightness temperature (PDBT) at 37 GHz in order to study the inundation pattern of large floodplains by satellite microwave observations. The PDBT at 37 GHz is determined by the land surface temperature, the soil’s polarized effective emissivity difference (PEED), and vegetation transmission

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Gift Dumedah and Jeffrey P. Walker

1. Introduction Data assimilation (DA) methods are used widely for finding a compromise between imperfect observations and uncertain model outputs. Generally, the DA procedure encompasses three major components: (i) accurate estimation of the model state, (ii) determination of the measurement/observation errors, and (iii) estimation of model parameter values. The model parameter estimation has a direct impact on the simulated outputs and thus significantly influences the forward model runs

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