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Lei Shi, Ge Peng, and John J. Bates

using multisensor microwave observations. The sensors used included the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and Special Sensor Microwave Temperature Sounder (SSM/T-2). The use of multiple sensors led to a reduction in root-mean-square (RMS) error to 0.96 g kg −1 from previous values of 1.33–1.49 g kg −1 in specific humidity, and a reduction in RMS error to 1.96°C from previous values of 3.28°–4.60°C in air temperature. The retrievals were later

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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

the changes in ozone, cloudiness, and surface albedo were dealt with in Bernhard et al. (2007) . In a comprehensive investigation by Dong et al. (2010) using 10 yr of cloud and radiative flux observations collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), it is reported that the longwave cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) has a high positive correlations (0.8–0.9) with cloud fraction, liquid water path, and radiating

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

1998. More than 5000 observations were made over the period. Retrievals of precipitable water compare remarkably well to MERRA values, as seen in Fig. 10a , although differences are apparent for small quantities in winter. For monthly intervals, the correlation between MERRA and the hourly microwave radiometer precipitable water retrievals ranges from r = 0.87 in December 1997 to r = 0.96 in May 1998. A consistent bias of 0.6 mm in monthly averages is found, which amounts to 31% of the

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

. In the present study, we tried to create a heat and salt flux dataset in which sea ice processes are included in the Sea of Okhotsk, where the redistribution of heat and salt by the sea ice processes is considered to be particularly important, as described in the next section. This dataset is based on a daily heat budget analysis using ice concentration from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS) (AMSR-E) on the Aqua satellite. The spatial resolution of the

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

paucity of in situ observations in the Southern Ocean leaves open a host of questions about the true nature of surface fluxes at high latitudes, and our objectives are to address some of these most basic unknown aspects of Southern Ocean air–sea fluxes. We focus specifically on the turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat, which depend strongly on air–sea temperature differences and on specific humidity. In our analysis, we make use of year-round high-resolution shipboard measurements of the flux

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

observations and satellite data, which is shown in Fig. 9a . The field is interpolated to the MERRA grid from an initial resolution of 100 km × 100 km. This compilation differs from prior efforts in using AMSR-E microwave radiance as a background field for interpolation. Differences with prior methods by Vaughan et al. (1999) and Giovinetto and Zwally (2000) emphasize larger coastal values, particularly along the East Antarctic coastal escarpment and along the Bellingshausen Sea coast in West

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Xiangzhou Song and Lisan Yu

events ( Grossman and Betts 1990 ; Xue et al. 1995 ; Renfrew and Moore 1999 ; Pagowski and Moore 2001 ; Renfrew et al. 2002 ; Yu and Weller 2009 ). For instance, the aircraft-based observations show that SHF can reach as high as 500 W m −2 while LHF is only about 100 W m −2 during an extreme cold-air outbreak in the Labrador Sea ( Renfrew and Moore 1999 ). Since the incoming shortwave radiation is weak in the winter season, LHF plus SHF contributes predominantly to the change of net sea

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