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Stephen D. Eckermann, Jun Ma, Karl W. Hoppel, David D. Kuhl, Douglas R. Allen, James A. Doyle, Kevin C. Viner, Benjamin C. Ruston, Nancy L. Baker, Steven D. Swadley, Timothy R. Whitcomb, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Liang Xu, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, and Peter T. Love

-sensitive tropospheric and stratospheric channels are also assimilated as available from the SSMIS LAS channels and from the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) on NASA’s Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership ( NPP ) satellite. Our three sensors providing MLT observations, marked in red on the left and right of Fig. 6 , provide 250 000 observations every cycle to the reanalysis with no temporal gaps in coverage, or 7% of the assimilated data volume in the troposphere and stratosphere. While these

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

(GV) provided in situ, dropsonde, and microwave temperature profiler (MTP) measurements extending from Earth’s surface to ∼20 km throughout the core field program (see Table 2 ). The GV also carried three new instruments designed specifically to address DEEPWAVE science goals: 1) a Rayleigh lidar measuring densities and temperatures from ∼20 to 60 km, 2) a sodium resonance lidar measuring sodium densities and temperatures from ∼75 to 100 km, and 3) an advanced mesosphere temperature mapper (AMTM

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, and Ronald B. Smith

MLT. The DA system continued to assimilate its regular extensive suite of archived operationally available observations spanning the 0–50-km-altitude range. Among these were the AVAPS dropsonde data that, after rapid postprocessing in Christchurch, were transmitted on WMO’s Global Telecommunication System (GTS) for access by operational centers. From 50 to 100 km, the system assimilated the following additional observations: temperature-sensitive microwave radiances from the upper

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

analyzes the atmospheric conditions from the troposphere up to the mesosphere during austral winter 2014. We emphasize key circulation features during the DEEPWAVE campaign period and relate them to the climatological mean conditions. The different meteorological conditions are related to observed wave events [intensive observing periods (IOPs) with airborne observations and periods with only ground-based (GB) measurements as listed in Tables 4 and 5 in Fritts et al. (2016) ]. Section 2 provides

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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

iD10p13045 . 10.1029/JD094iD10p13045 Lynch , P. , and X.-Y. Huang , 2010 : Initialization. Data Assimilation: Making Sense of Observations , W. Lahoz, B. Khattatov, and R. Ménard, Eds., Springer, 241–260. 10.1007/978-3-540-74703-1_9 McLandress , C. , M. J. Alexander , and D. L. Wu , 2000 : Microwave Limb Sounder observations of gravity waves in the stratosphere: A climatology and interpretation . J. Geophys. Res. , 105 , 11 947 – 11 967 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2000JD900097

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Ronald B. Smith, Alison D. Nugent, Christopher G. Kruse, David C. Fritts, James D. Doyle, Steven D. Eckermann, Michael J. Taylor, Andreas Dörnbrack, M. Uddstrom, William Cooper, Pavel Romashkin, Jorgen Jensen, and Stuart Beaton

most active wave season and region in the world, zonally averaged MFs estimates at z = 20-km range from 2 to 18 mPa. While satellites, superpressure balloons, and radiosondes provide better spatial and temporal coverage of gravity waves, the most detailed wave observations come from aircraft transects through wave fields, capturing the full spectrum. Physical studies of wave generation and propagation require these targeted high-resolution observations. Furthermore, airborne wave detection has

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