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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

a control experiment. In 1986, just prior to the initiation of GEWEX phase I, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) was launched to support WCRP programs by producing precipitation maps on a global basis using the ability of satellites to provide global coverage. Initially these products, which were produced by combining data from a global network of rain gauge stations and geostationary satellite infrared and passive microwave observations, were available at 2.5° × 2.5° and

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Yefim L. Kogan, Zena N. Kogan, and David B. Mechem

. , 52 , 2788 – 2799 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052<2788:MOSCAD>2.0.CO;2 Frisch, A. S. , Feingold G. , Fairall C. W. , Uttal T. , and Snider J. B. , 1998 : On cloud radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud liquid water profiles. J. Geophys. Res. , 103 , 23195 – 23197 . 10.1029/98JD01827 Khairoutdinov, M. F. , and Kogan Y. L. , 1999 : A large eddy simulation model with explicit microphysics: Validation against aircraft observations of a stratocumulus

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Scott Curtis, Ahmed Salahuddin, Robert F. Adler, George J. Huffman, Guojun Gu, and Yang Hong

) precipitation index (OPI; Xie and Arkin 1998 ). For the remainder of the months the multisatellite product is determined by Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I)-based precipitation estimates ( Wilheit et al. 1991 ). The inhomogeneity does not appear to affect the time trend of the global mean GPCP precipitation, but somewhat affects the probability density function ( Gu et al. 2007 ) due to the greater spatial smoothness of the fields in the earlier period. Table 1 shows the mean and standard

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

benefit from the microwave data from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and other sources. The annual mean global GPCP values are 486.9 ± 2.9 × 10 3 km 3 , where we used twice the standard error of the annual means over the 17 yr to compute the temporal sampling variability error. In the following, the units are 10 3 km 3 yr −1 to enable monthly values to be compared to the annual mean. Over the global ocean, GPCP precipitation features an annual cycle with peak values of 381.2 units in

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