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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

) reduced the early morning warm bias in WRF simulations of three fall days over northern Utah through the use of an alternate soil thermal conductivity parameterization combined with soil moisture analyses based on in situ observations. The afternoon cold bias, however, was only partially reduced in Massey et al. (2014) and remains associated with a myriad of plausible, yet untested, error sources including 1) differences between model and observation site elevations ( Liu et al. 2008b

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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

Comprehensive, multiscale, and multidisciplinary observations allow scientists to discover novel flow physics, address current deficiencies of predictive models, and improve weather prediction in mountainous terrain. Through woods and mountain passes the winds, like anthems, roll. —Henry Wadsworth Longfellow For centuries, humans have been both fascinated and awed by mountain weather, and its intriguing aberrancy continues to baffle weather forecasters. For instance, a clear morning on a

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Jason C. Knievel

and boundary layer winds, and the development of moist convection (e.g., Ookouchi et al. 1984 ; Avissar and Pielke 1989 ; Segal et al. 1989 ; Doran and Zhong 1995 ; Banta and Gannon 1995 ; Huang et al. 1996 ; Holt et al. 2006 ; Zhou and Geerts 2013 ), but a lack of in situ observations, combined with instrument and representativeness errors, limits reliable soil-moisture assimilation (e.g., Dirmeyer et al. 2000 ; Godfrey and Stensrud 2008 ; Liu et al. 2011 ). As a result, most soil

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