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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Daniel J. Cecil

Argentina. With time, this will be a promising avenue to explore hail within this region, but currently the data record is not extensive enough for a thorough analysis. Fig . 1. Southern South America with topography shaded and the study area outlined. As a result, the most comprehensive way to examine the climatology of hail in subtropical South America and compare these results to other parts of the world is to use passive microwave satellite observations of ice hydrometeors. These measurements have

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Adam C. Varble, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola Salio, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Paloma Borque, Paul J. DeMott, Zhe Feng, Thomas C. J. Hill, James N. Marquis, Alyssa Matthews, Fan Mei, Rusen Öktem, Vagner Castro, Lexie Goldberger, Alexis Hunzinger, Kevin R. Barry, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Greg M. McFarquhar, Lynn A. McMurdie, Mikhail Pekour, Heath Powers, David M. Romps, Celeste Saulo, Beat Schmid, Jason M. Tomlinson, Susan C. van den Heever, Alla Zelenyuk, Zhixiao Zhang, and Edward J. Zipser

Period (15 October 2018–30 April 2019), and a 1.5-month intensive observation period (IOP; 1 November–15 December 2018) that included Gulfstream-1 (G-1) aircraft flights. The campaign overlapped with the collaborating multi-agency, National Science Foundation (NSF)-led Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign [see companion article by Nesbitt et al. (2021) ]. The processes targeted by CACTI

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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam C. Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

, mesoscale convective systems, multicell storms), and conceptual models of storm life cycle and life cycle transitions and their associated hazard probabilities, generated from U.S. storms consistent across global regions? How do proxies for severe storm frequency from satellites and large-scale models compare with detailed observations in severe storms, particularly in regions where the physical processes producing severe weather may differ? The answers to these questions ultimately impact our ability

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

.5439/1482619 . 10.5439/1482619 Bang , S. D. , and D. J. Cecil , 2019 : Constructing a multifrequency passive microwave hail retrieval and climatology in the GPM domain . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 58 , 1889 – 1904 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0042.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0042.1 Blair , S. F. , and Coauthors , 2017 : High-resolution hail observations: Implications for NWS warning operations . Wea. Forecasting , 32 , 1101 – 1119 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-16-0203.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-16

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Paola V. Salio

1. Introduction Satellite observations have revealed that some of the world’s most intense thunderstorms occur across subtropical South America and, more specifically, in northern and central Argentina (e.g., Zipser et al. 2006 ; Romatschke and Houze 2010 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Houze et al. 2015 ). These thunderstorms typically develop near a secondary mountain range to the east of the Andes called the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC), and they have been associated with severe weather

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Timothy J. Lang, Eldo E. Ávila, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeff Burchfield, Matthew Wingo, Phillip M. Bitzer, Lawrence D. Carey, Wiebke Deierling, Steven J. Goodman, Bruno Lisboa Medina, Gregory Melo, and Rodolfo G. Pereyra

field campaigns occurred near Córdoba from late 2018 through early 2019. The Remote Sensing of Electrification, Lightning, and Mesoscale/Microscale Processes with Adaptive Ground Observations (RELAMPAGO) field campaign focused on high-impact convective weather, and the Clouds, Aerosols, and Complex Terrain Interactions (CACTI) field campaign focused on the representation of orographic clouds in atmospheric models ( RELAMPAGO-CACTI 2020 ). The U.S. components of these field campaigns, primarily

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Matthew R. Kumjian, Rachel Gutierrez, Joshua S. Soderholm, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paula Maldonado, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Kevin A. Bowley, Milagros Alvarez Imaz, and Paola Salio

environment of the supercell that produced the Vivian, South Dakota, hailstone (which registers as the world record for maximum dimension: 20 cm or 8 in.) and analyzed some of the storm’s radar characteristics. Their evaluation of the environment indicated that it was indeed supportive of severe convective storms, but it was not obviously supportive of such large hail as was observed. Other studies focused on radar observations of storms producing giant or gargantuan hail. Blair et al. (2011) compared

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