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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

, Olson et al. (1999 , 2006) and Grecu and Olson (2006 , hereafter GO06) developed methods that directly interpreted satellite passive microwave signatures in terms of heating vertical structure. The first two of these studies utilized cloud-resolving model simulations to synthesize microwave radiances; the model relationships between radiances and heating profiles were then employed in a Bayesian methodology for inferring heating profiles from satellite microwave sensor observations. These

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

perspective, our analysis focuses on exploring differences in the distribution of LH on time scales ranging from interannual to intraseasonal. This study also serves a technological purpose: the determination of the validity the TRMM Level 3 Monthly 0.5° × 0.5° Convective and Stratiform Heating (CSH) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) 2A12 datasets in representing the characteristics of monsoon atmospheric heating. The paper is organized in the following manner: Section 2 presents brief descriptions of the

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

microwave observations, providing a better representation of overlapping cloud systems than visible–infrared approaches. The primary objectives of this paper are to provide an update of the HERB algorithm introduced in LS03 , illustrate the character and duration of the resulting TRMM-based Q R product and characterize its uncertainties, and document the 10-yr climatology of Q R in the tropical and subtropical atmospheres and its variability on seasonal to interannual scales. Recent improvements to

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model] simulations but also include profiles from sounding budget studies. In GPROF, CRM-simulated vertical profiles of hydrometeors (and associated LH) that have radiative characteristics consistent with a given set of multispectral microwave radiometric observations are composited to create (retrieve) a best estimate of the observed profiles ( Olson et al. 1999 ; Grecu et al. 2009 ). The HH algorithm 3 estimates LH profiles as a function of the vertical derivative of the

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

estimation of precipitation from satellite passive microwave observations using combined radar–radiometer retrievals. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 45 , 416 – 433 . Hartmann , D. , H. H. Hendon , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 1984 : Some implications of the mesoscale circulations in tropical cloud clusters for large-scale dynamics and climate. J. Atmos. Sci. , 41 , 113 – 121 . Haynes , P. H. , and M. E. McIntyre , 1987 : On the evolution of vorticity and potential vorticity in the

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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

. REFERENCES Bosilovich , M. G. , and Coauthors , 2006 : NASA’s Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). U.S. CLIVAR Variations, Vol. 4, No. 2, U.S. CLIVAR, Washington, DC, 5–8 . Grecu , M. , W. S. Olson , C. L. Shie , T. S. L’Ecuyer , and W. K. Tao , 2009 : Combining satellite microwave radiometer and radar observations to estimate atmospheric heating profiles. J. Climate , 22 , 6356 – 6376 . Hartmann , D. L. , H. H. Hendon , and R. A. Houze

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

and Yasunari (2006) , the diurnal cycle impacts processes on the intraseasonal time scale, thereby complicating the treatment of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ). The diurnal cycle of rainfall is particularly prominent in coastal and mountainous areas of the monsoon regions and Indonesian Maritime Continent ( Janowiak et al. 2005 ). While observations of the diurnal cycle of convection have increased dramatically during the past decade, clarification of the mechanisms

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

. Climate , 22 , 3939 – 3959 . Grecu , M. , and W. S. Olson , 2006 : Bayesian estimation of precipitation from satellite passive microwave observations using combined radar–radiometer retrievals. J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 45 , 416 – 433 . Grecu , M. , W. S. Olson , C. L. Shie , T. S. L’Ecuyer , and W-K. Tao , 2009 : Combining satellite microwave radiometer and radar observations to estimate atmospheric heating profiles. J. Climate , in press . Hendon , H. H. , and B

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

total rain in amount and areal coverage. However, they analyzed data derived from passive microwave observations of the TRMM, and the distinction of warm rain from deep rain was not critical. The TRMM PR is preferable for detecting warm rain because the PR can classify precipitation by echo-top height. Recently, the version 6 data product of TRMM PR was released. It provides a detailed index of precipitation features by which we can evaluate the contribution of warm rain ( TRMM Precipitation Radar

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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

a review of observations and theories related to MJO.] Because of the highly multiscale organization associated with MJO ( Nakazawa 1988 ; Lau et al. 1989 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1994 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Masunaga et al. 2006 ), realistic simulation of MJO is now considered one of the most fundamental tests of climate model physics and a major challenge to climate modeling. Early theoretical studies ( Lau and Peng 1987 ; Kemball-Cook and Weare 2001 ) found large sensitivity of the MJO

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