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Larry W. O’Neill, Tracy Haack, and Theodore Durland

. Climatol. , 47 , 3170 – 3187 , doi: 10.1175/2008JAMC1893.1 . Liu , W. T. , and W. Tang , 1996 : Equivalent neutral wind. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publ. 96-17, 16 pp. [Available online at http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19970010322.pdf .] Mapes , B. , R. Milliff , and J. Morzel , 2009 : Composite life cycle of maritime tropical mesoscale convective systems in scatterometer and microwave satellite observations . J. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 199 – 208 , doi: 10

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

, 2008 : Comparison of upper tropospheric water vapor observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder . J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D22110 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD010000 . Frankignoul , C. , N. Sennechael , Y.-O. Kwon , and M. A. Alexander , 2011 : Influence of the meridional shifts of the Kuroshio and the Oyashio Extensions on the atmospheric circulation . J. Climate , 24 , 762 – 777 , doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3731.1 . Hashizume , H. , S. P. Xie , M

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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

– 112 , doi: 10.1007/BF00232256 . Kunoki , S. , and Coauthors , 2015 : Oceanic influence on the Baiu frontal zone in the East China Sea . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 120 , 449 – 463 , doi: 10.1002/2014JD022234 . Kurihara , Y. , T. Sakurai , and T. Kuragano , 2006 : Global daily sea surface temperature analysis using data from satellite microwave radiometer, satellite infrared radiometer and in-situ observations (in Japanese) . Wea. Bull. , 73 , s1 – s18 . Kushnir , Y. , W. A

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Peter Gaube, Dudley B. Chelton, Roger M. Samelson, Michael G. Schlax, and Larry W. O’Neill

from the smoothed background wind field u bg alone [i.e., for stress from (9) with u o = 0 everywhere] is O (1) cm day −1 . e. Estimation of SST-induced Ekman pumping The SST fields used in this study are the optimally interpolated SST analyses produced by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center. Microwave and infrared satellite observations were combined with in situ measurements of SST to obtain daily, global fields on a ¼° × ¼° grid

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Youichi Tanimoto

circulation model (AGCM) suggest that these two mechanisms can be operative comparably over the KE in January (cf. Shimada and Minobe 2011 ). Samelson et al. (2006) argued that the positive correlations between SST and surface wind stress away from the immediate vicinity of oceanic fronts may be attributable to the deeper MABL over the warmer SST. Recent high-resolution satellite observations and numerical experiments have suggested mesoscale influences of SST on clouds and precipitation systems

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Larry W. O’Neill, Tracy Haack, Dudley B. Chelton, and Eric Skyllingstad

). This map was constructed from 10 years of QuikSCAT wind observations spanning the time period November 1999–October 2009, as described in section 2a . Since both raining and rain-free conditions are included in this mean, it is referred to as the all-weather (AW) mean. The band of time-mean convergence—the GSCZ—overlies the approximate position of the Gulf Stream, from the Charleston Bump off the coast of South Carolina, separating from the shelf near Cape Hatteras, extending to the northeast

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Kohei Takatama, Shoshiro Minobe, Masaru Inatsu, and R. Justin Small

1. Introduction Recent high-resolution satellite observations have significantly advanced the understanding of how the ocean and atmosphere interact on monthly or longer time scales. These observations have revealed that the divergence and curl 1 of near-surface horizontal wind exhibit remarkable structures over large-scale sea surface temperature (SST) fronts, where the SST significantly changes within several tens or hundreds of kilometers [see Xie (2004) , Chelton et al. (2004) , Small

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

correlation? Do the scales of variability in the model match observations? The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 describes the model and observed product data, and the methods of analysis, including latent heat flux (LHF) decomposition and feedback parameter. LHF is focused on because of its dominance of the net heat flux term response to SST (see section 2 below). Section 3 describes the variability and covariability of SST and LHF in models and data, and then section 4 presents two

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Raffaele Montuoro, Hisashi Nakamura, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, and Lixin Wu

boundary current regimes takes place at frontal scale and mesoscale where until recently available observations and numerical modeling tools have been inadequate to resolve these small-scale dynamical processes. As a result, detailed mechanisms governing air–sea interaction along western boundary current regimes are still lacking. Many recent studies on extratropical active air–sea feedback draw attention to the influence of the strong SST gradient in western boundary regimes on lower

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Bo Qiu

observations shows a distinct SLP trough along the KE ( Tanimoto et al. 2011 ). Enhanced surface wind convergence due to the vertical mixing effect and/or hydrostatic effect can locally strengthen upward motion, which can reach the midtroposphere in many occasions, enhancing cloud formation and precipitation ( Minobe et al. 2008 , 2010 ; Tokinaga et al. 2009 ; Frenger et al. 2013 ; Masunaga et al. 2015 ). Westward-propagating wind-forced oceanic Rossby waves are shown to play an important role in

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