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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

1. Introduction The quality of an operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forecast depends significantly on the accuracy of the initial conditions specifications and also on the ability of the model to simulate well the atmospheric physical and dynamical processes. Data assimilation methods often provide for improved performance of these NWP models ( Kalnay 2003 ). Data assimilation methods combine available past as well as current meteorological observations in order to improve

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Young-Kwon Lim, Ming Cai, Eugenia Kalnay, and Liming Zhou

1. Introduction Global mean surface temperature time series derived from in situ observations reveal the interdecadal global warming over the last several decades ( Houghton et al. 2001 ). Many studies reported that this upward trend is significantly a result of primary human impacts such as greenhouse gases ( Houghton et al. 2001 ) and land use ( Pielke et al. 2002 ). The anthropogenic land-use impact on surface warming may become more important as the surface vegetation changes in the form of

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