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Rolf H. Langland, Christopher Velden, Patricia M. Pauley, and Howard Berger

pressure and is specified as 2.8 m s −1 below 850 hPa, 4.4 m s −1 from 400 to 700 hPa, and 5.2 m s −1 above 300 hPa. Other satellite observations assimilated by NAVDAS include radiance observations from IR sounders, surface wind vector estimates from scatterometers, wind speed estimates from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and satellite-derived total precipitable water estimates. The primary sources of in situ atmospheric observations are radiosonde profiles, surface data from land and ship

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Mark Buehner, P. L. Houtekamer, Cecilien Charette, Herschel L. Mitchell, and Bin He

geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites; surface winds over water from the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT); and radiances from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A and B (AMSU-A/B), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and geostationary satellites. The 2008 operational EnKF assimilates the same observations except for the radiances from AIRS, SSM/I, and geostationary satellites. Several modifications were made to procedures related to the assimilated

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Peter Black, Lee Harrison, Mark Beaubien, Robert Bluth, Roy Woods, Andrew Penny, Robert W. Smith, and James D. Doyle

intensity prediction performance ( Burpee et al. 1996 ; Aberson and Franklin 1999 ; Wu et al. 2007 ; Weissmann et al. 2011 ; Aberson 2010 , 2011 ; Chou et al. 2011 ; Wang et al. 2015 ). Dropsonde observations have also become the “reference standard” against which airborne remote wind sensors such as the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR) have been validated, resulting in improved hurricane intensity estimation and the use of SFMR as the “gold standard” for hurricane surface wind

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