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Mircea Grecu, Lin Tian, Gerald M. Heymsfield, Ali Tokay, William S. Olson, Andrew J. Heymsfield, and Aaron Bansemer

radar observations. The PSD data used in this study are available from the OLYMPEX and IPHEX data portals. The PSD data are integrated to derive the associated equivalent reflectivity factors at Ku, Ka, and W band. This procedure is described next. b. Radar backscattering The main challenge in quantifying the electromagnetic-scattering properties of realistic snowflakes and ice particles at microwave frequencies is that they exhibit complex shapes that make the numerical solutions to Maxwell

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Andrew Heymsfield, Aaron Bansemer, Norman B. Wood, Guosheng Liu, Simone Tanelli, Ousmane O. Sy, Michael Poellot, and Chuntao Liu

. The two methods employed here to develop Z e – S relationships for multiple wavelengths are described in section 2 together with the regional and global datasets used. The results are presented in section 3 . Section 4 discusses the findings, and the conclusions are summarized in section 5 . 2. Methodology a. Aircraft-based snowfall-rate estimates and radar measurements The most direct method [observations (OBS)] to develop snowfall-rate–radar reflectivity relationships at multiple

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