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Ingo Meirold-Mautner, Catherine Prigent, Eric Defer, Juan R. Pardo, Jean-Pierre Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre Pinty, Mario Mech, and Susanne Crewell

1. Introduction A strong need is emerging to have accurate radiative transfer simulations from realistic cloudy and rainy scenes at high microwave frequencies. First, efforts are made to assimilate satellite microwave radiation from cloudy and rainy atmospheres within numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. As a first step, precipitation affected satellite observations at microwave frequencies up to 22 GHz are assimilated in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF

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Stephen R. Guimond, Gerald M. Heymsfield, and F. Joseph Turk

1. Introduction a. Instruments for tropical cyclone observation Advancements in the field of atmospheric science (and science in general) often arise because of new and innovative observations of the entity being studied. Such is the case with the problem of tropical cyclone (TC) intensification. In recent years, the plethora of instruments (e.g., dropsondes, aircraft Doppler radars, microwave satellite imagers and sounders) has led to an increase in the frequency and quality of TC inner core

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F. J. Robinson, S. C. Sherwood, D. Gerstle, C. Liu, and D. J. Kirshbaum

convection between active and break-monsoon convection over northern Australia. Matsui et al. (1989) compared observed and modeled storm characteristics in the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) and the Kwajelein Experiment (KWAJEX), finding that peak SCSMEX storms reached higher in both observations and two CRMs tested. Unfortunately, differences in other indicators of storm intensity, such as radar retrievals at middle and lower levels or microwave brightness temperatures, were generally not

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Mark S. Kulie, Ralf Bennartz, Thomas J. Greenwald, Yong Chen, and Fuzhong Weng

1. Introduction Satellite-based passive microwave instruments have provided routine retrievals of important geophysical parameters over the past few decades, while recent spaceborne active microwave instruments have generated valuable datasets of cloud and precipitation profiles. Cloud and precipitation research has particularly benefited from sustained microwave observations that have enabled the development and continual improvement of global cloud and precipitation climatologies (e.g., Weng

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Rei Ueyama and John M. Wallace

microwave measurements: Method and results 1979–84. J. Climate , 3 , 1111 – 1128 . Thompson , D. W. J. , and S. Solomon , 2005 : Recent stratospheric climate trends as evidenced in radiosonde data: Global structure and tropospheric linkages. J. Climate , 18 , 4785 – 4795 . Trenberth , K. E. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Observations: Surface and atmospheric climate change. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. S. Solomon et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press . Uppala , S

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Grant W. Petty and Wei Huang

retrieval scheme—that is, the higher dimensional the space in which observations are compared with model calculations, the greater the vulnerability of that scheme to errors in the computed radiative properties of atmospheric scatterers, including spectral dependence, polarization, and the relationship between microwave emission or attenuation and radar backscatter. With this in mind, and in view of the near-absence of corroborating in situ measurements of these properties for snow, a reevaluation of

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Xiaofeng Zhao and Sixun Huang

observations were assumed to be the electric field u , which was a complex field. But in practical RFC estimations, the received clutter power P r is a real number field. Through the PE model, P r is determined by | u |—that is, the absolute value of u , but not u ( Barrios 1991 ; Gerstoft et al. 2003b ). How to establish the relationship between the complex equation and the real number cost function is an intractable problem. This paper is an extension of the work of Zhao and Huang (2011) in

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Dong L. Wu and Stephen D. Eckermann

, 1357 – 1383 . McLandress , C. , and J. F. Scinocca , 2005 : The GCM response to current parameterizations of nonorographic gravity wave drag. J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 2394 – 2413 . McLandress , C. , M. J. Alexander , and D. L. Wu , 2000 : Microwave limb sounder observations of gravity waves in the stratosphere: A climatology and interpretation. J. Geophys. Res. , 105 , 11947 – 11967 . O’Sullivan , D. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1995 : Generation of inertia–gravity waves in a

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Christopher E. Holloway and J. David Neelin

. , R. Milliff , and J. Morzel , 2009 : Composite life cycle of maritime tropical mesoscale convective systems in scatterometer and microwave satellite observations. J. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 199 – 208 . Mather , J. H. , T. P. Ackerman , W. E. Clements , F. J. Barnes , M. D. Ivey , L. D. Hatfield , and R. M. Reynolds , 1998 : An atmospheric radiation and cloud station in the tropical western Pacific. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 79 , 627 – 642 . Neelin , J. D. , O

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Christopher A. Davis, David A. Ahijevych, Julie A. Haggerty, and Michael J. Mahoney

. However, it is also possible that the warm anomaly is related to gravity waves excited by convection, although the exact mechanism remains unclear. 4. Conclusions Observations of spatial and temporal aspects of temperature in the UTLS region from a microwave temperature profiler (MTP) have highlighted features that accompany synoptic-scale tropical weather systems. Revealing mesoscale structures is particularly challenging in the tropics where horizontal gradients of temperature do not systematically

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