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Jie Feng and Xuguang Wang

, HLTCIUV, and ALLTCI than in BASE can be seen in Fig. 12 as well, which verifies the surface (10 m) wind amplitude in 12-h forecasts against the stepped frequency microwave radiometer (SFMR) and the 700-hPa wind amplitude against the flight-level observations, respectively. Although the eyewalls in the four experiments are overall weaker and larger than that observed, ALLTCI still exhibits higher peak wind speed and narrower eyewall than BASE, especially over the southern transect of the flight

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Xu Lu and Xuguang Wang

2015. The surface verification is from the observations of SFMR (Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer) on board the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and the 3-km height verification is composited from the TDR radial velocity data provided by HRD ( Gamache 2005 ; both observations can be obtained from HRD 2015 ). While the SFMR observations suggested a small size hurricane (RMW about 18 km) with strong surface wind maximum (close to 60 m s −1 ; Fig. 3a ) around the northeast of Patricia at this time

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Shixuan Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Christopher Velden

-core airborne Doppler radar observations . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 38 , L15810 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048469 . 10.1029/2011GL048469 Zhu , Y. , and Coauthors , 2016 : All-sky microwave radiance assimilation in NCEP’s GSI analysis system . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 144 , 4709 – 4735 , https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR-D-15-0445.1 . 10.1175/MWR-D-15-0445.1

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David R. Ryglicki, Joshua H. Cossuth, Daniel Hodyss, and James D. Doyle

–sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part II: Evolutionary study using a nonhydrostatic axisymmetric numerical model . J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 542 – 561 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<0542:AAITFT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<0542:AAITFT>2.0.CO;2 Rozoff , C. M. , C. S. Velden , J. Kaplan , J. P. Kossin , and A. J. Wimmers , 2015 : Improvements in the probabilistic prediction of tropical cyclone rapid intensification with passive microwave observations . Wea

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David R. Ryglicki, James D. Doyle, Daniel Hodyss, Joshua H. Cossuth, Yi Jin, Kevin C. Viner, and Jerome M. Schmidt

.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<0542:AAITFT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<0542:AAITFT>2.0.CO;2 Rozoff , C. M. , C. S. Velden , J. Kaplan , J. P. Kossin , and A. J. Wimmers , 2015 : Improvements in the probabilistic prediction of tropical cyclone rapid intensification with passive microwave observations . Wea. Forecasting , 30 , 1016 – 1038 , https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-14-00109.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-14-00109.1 Ryglicki , D. R. , and R. E. Hart , 2015 : An investigation of center-finding techniques for

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