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Rolf H. Langland, Christopher Velden, Patricia M. Pauley, and Howard Berger

pressure and is specified as 2.8 m s −1 below 850 hPa, 4.4 m s −1 from 400 to 700 hPa, and 5.2 m s −1 above 300 hPa. Other satellite observations assimilated by NAVDAS include radiance observations from IR sounders, surface wind vector estimates from scatterometers, wind speed estimates from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and satellite-derived total precipitable water estimates. The primary sources of in situ atmospheric observations are radiosonde profiles, surface data from land and ship

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Mark Buehner, P. L. Houtekamer, Cecilien Charette, Herschel L. Mitchell, and Bin He

geostationary and polar-orbiting satellites; surface winds over water from the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT); and radiances from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit A and B (AMSU-A/B), Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and geostationary satellites. The 2008 operational EnKF assimilates the same observations except for the radiances from AIRS, SSM/I, and geostationary satellites. Several modifications were made to procedures related to the assimilated

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