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Haiming Xu, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

satellite observations of SST, sea surface height (SSH), sea surface wind, cloud liquid water (CLW), and precipitation by microwave sensors on different platforms. The TMI measures SST free of clouds over the global tropics within 38°N/S. It also measures rain rate and column-integrated cloud liquid water content. We use a monthly TMI product on a 0.25°grid ( Wentz et al. 2000 ). The microwave scatterometer on the QuikSCAT satellite measures daily surface wind velocity over the World Ocean ( Liu et al

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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

product, derived from TRMM and other satellite observations: geosynchronous infrared radiometer, Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), rain gauge, and the TRMM 3B31 product based on the TRMM precipitation radar and microwave imager on a monthly 0.25° × 0.25° grid between 50°S and 50°N. The TRMM 3B43 product is available at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. The microwave scatterometer SeaWinds on the NASA QuikSCAT satellite measures daily surface wind velocity over the

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Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Shoshiro Minobe, and Shang-Ping Xie

.0 (COARE3.0) flux algorithm ( Fairall et al. 2003 ) using SST and surface wind from several spaceborne microwave radiometers and scatterometers, surface air specific humidity estimated from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I), and surface air temperature from the NCEP–Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis 2 ( Kanamitsu et al. 2002 ). 3. Seasonal variations Figure 1 shows annual and seasonal means of precipitation for TRMM 3B43 observations, CNTL, and SMTH. The precipitation band over the Gulf

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Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Lisan Yu

trends and monthly variability. The surface wind products are developed by the OAFlux project at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) under the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Ocean Vector Wind Science Team (OVWST) program. The global wind analysis was developed in parallel with the ocean evaporation, latent and sensible heat fluxes, and radiative fluxes development, and is based on an objective analysis of multiple passive and active microwave sensors

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

circulation (AMOC; Hurrell et al. 2003 ), which has a cold, deep return flow, the deep western boundary current (DWBC). In the North Pacific, there are two SST fronts ( Yasuda 2003 ), of which the stronger North Pacific SST front corresponds to the Oyashio Extension and the combined system is referred to as the Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE). In this study we present parallel analyses of observations of the GS and the KE, as well as comparisons of previous separate studies. Our goal is to explore what

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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

the western North Pacific, shaded as indicated below (d) and (e). CIs are (a),(d) 30 (solid lines for ≥120; dashed lines for ≤90) and (b),(e) 50 (solid lines for ≥250; dashed lines for ≤200). Figures are based on the Japanese Ocean Flux Datasets with Use of Remote Sensing Observations (JOFURO; Kubota et al. 2002 ), which have been derived from moisture data from microwave sensor [Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)/Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I)] and SST ( Reynolds et al

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Bunmei Taguchi, Hisashi Nakamura, Masami Nonaka, and Shang-Ping Xie

zone, where the heat thus transported is intensively released into the atmosphere mostly in the cold season (e.g., Kelly and Dong 2004 ). Minobe et al. (2008) have demonstrated that intense heat release from the Gulf Stream enhances convective precipitation locally, suggesting that associated latent heat release may force a basin-scale atmospheric response, as postulated by Hoskins and Valdes (1990) . Tokinaga et al. (2009) have synthesized in situ and satellite observations to show that

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Masami Nonaka, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, Nobumasa Komori, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, and Koutarou Takaya

( Alexander 1992 ; Barsugli and Battisti 1998 ). In recent years, however, impacts of midlatitude oceanic frontal zones on the atmosphere have been gaining increasing attention, as their fine structures and variability have become apparent by recent satellite observations and high-resolution numerical models ( Xie 2004 ; Chelton et al. 2004 ; Nakamura and Kazmin 2003 ; Nonaka et al. 2006 ; Minobe et al. 2008 ; Nakamura et al. 2008 ). Satellite observations have shown that SST and surface wind speed

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Nicholas A. Bond, Meghan F. Cronin, and Matthew Garvert

for the control experiment is from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) dataset valid at 13 October 2004 ( Fig. 1 ). The warm and cool perturbation SST experiments use the control SST distribution and impose SST anomalies with maximum perturbations of 1.5°C at 35°N, 140°W, tapering off to background values in a Gaussian manner with e -folding scales of 8° in latitude and 16° in longitude ( Fig. 2 ). The shape and magnitude of these SST perturbations

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