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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

statistical relationship between the CMIP5 models’ representation of this effect and their performance in simulating the amplitude of the MJO. Del Genio et al. (2015) examined sensitivity of MJO simulation to entrainment, rain evaporation, downdrafts, and cold pools. They found that for the various configurations, a version that produces strong column heating for weak precipitation also produces improved initiation and progression of MJO. However, improvements in MJO simulations are often accompanied by

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

model layer. Note that we have neglected the diffusion process, which smooths out the moisture field; therefore, it is not a source/sink in a global domain but it may still be a net source/sink at local area. As shown below, the rhs and lhs of Eq. (1) agree quite well, indicating that this omission in Eq. (1) is justified. The two nonlinear advection terms at the resolved scales are evaluated using variables averaged over 7 adjacent grid cells. Skamarock (2004) demonstrated that 6–7 times the

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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

, 2011 : Thermodynamics of the MJO in a regional model with constrained moisture . J. Atmos. Sci. , 68 , 1974 – 1989 , doi: 10.1175/2011JAS3592.1 . Haidvogel , D. B. , H. G. Arango , K. Hedstrom , A. Beckmann , P. Malanotte-Rizzoli , and A. F. Shchepetkin , 2000 : Model evaluation experiments in the North Atlantic basin: Simulations in nonlinear terrain-following coordinates . Dyn. Atmos. Oceans , 32 , 239 – 281 , doi: 10.1016/S0377-0265(00)00049-X . Han , W. , 2005

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Simon P. de Szoeke and Eric D. Maloney

Jensen (2017) demonstrate that persistent warm SST anomalies associated with downwelling oceanic Rossby waves can help to initiate the MJO in the western Indian Ocean. We evaluate the mass and moisture convergence (and hence MSE convergence) due to MJO composite SST anomalies with the wind field calculated from the diagnostic model of Back and Bretherton (2009 , hereafter BB09 ). Because the mean MSE profile decreases to the middle troposphere then increases to the tropopause, upward vertical

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

model . J. Atmos. Sci. , 50 , 2922 – 2939 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2922:TIOIAS>2.0.CO;2 . Dee , D. P. , and Coauthors , 2011 : The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 137 , 553 – 597 , doi: 10.1002/qj.828 . DeMott , C. A. , C. Stan , D. A. Randall , and M. D. Branson , 2014 : Intraseasonal variability in coupled GCMs: The roles of ocean feedbacks and model physics . J. Climate , 27

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