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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

; moreover, the forecast became rather poor after a lead time of as little as 5 days. The latter result seems to be at odds with the commonly held view that large-scale phenomena such as RWPs should be predictable on a rather long time scale. However, this evaluation was for a single case only involving a single forecast model; further systematic studies are required to possibly generalize these results. Regarding the waveguide, several operational forecast models are fraught with a spurious decrease of

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Gabriel Wolf and Volkmar Wirth

appropriate in the current context is the wave activity flux of Takaya and Nakamura (2001) . One particular feature of this formulation is its phase independence; this means that it discounts individual troughs and ridges and focuses on the dynamics of the entire wave packet instead ( Danielson et al. 2006 ). Focus on the entire wave packet is desirable, for instance, when studying model errors as opposed to initial condition errors ( Gray et al. 2014 ), and it would be interesting to find out whether

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