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Bowen Zhou and Fotini Katopodes Chow

240-m LES grid, however, to a reduced magnitude. Model performance is less satisfactory after 2110 LST. On the LES grid, temperature is underpredicted by ~2°C, wind speed by ~5 m s −1 , and direction by 20° with a maximum deviation of 45° from the observation at 2124 LST. Despite the deviations, surface streamlines still indicate a down-valley-flow-dominated region around the central tower (not shown). The general conclusion of down-slope to down-valley flow transition still holds in the model

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Patrick A. Reinecke and Dale R. Durran

Kalman filter. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 130 , 2791 – 2808 . Nance , L. B. , and B. R. Coleman , 2000 : Evaluating the use of a nonlinear two-dimensional model in downslope windstorm forecasts. Wea. Forecasting , 15 , 717 – 729 . Nastrom , G. D. , and D. C. Fritts , 1992 : Sources of mesoscale variability of gravity waves. Part I: Topographic excitation. J. Atmos. Sci. , 49 , 101 – 110 . Peltier , W. R. , and T. L. Clark , 1979 : The evolution and stability of finite

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Michael Hill, Ron Calhoun, H. J. S. Fernando, Andreas Wieser, Andreas Dörnbrack, Martin Weissmann, Georg Mayr, and Robert Newsom

the behavior given in the analysis of Lhermitte and Miller (1970) for a dual-radar, coscanned plane, as shown in ( Fig. 12 ). e. Noise pollution Our model was tested numerically with varying levels of independent random noise to synthetically pollute the data, rather than the direct evaluation of uncertainty statistics in each bin. The evaluation of 3D matrices that were a consequence of these statistics caused computer memory issues and became time prohibitive. The radial velocity data were

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Ronald B. Smith, Bryan K. Woods, Jorgen Jensen, William A. Cooper, James D. Doyle, Qingfang Jiang, and Vanda Grubišić

trapped waves can be added separately. The wave amplitude and vertical wavelength adjust smoothly to each atmospheric layer encountered as the wave propagates upward. While this model neglects wave reflection, it captures the wave amplification due to decreasing wind and density aloft. In the discrete layered approach to linear wave theory, property variations are assumed to be abrupt. Vertical displacement and pressure are matched across each interface and these interface conditions are used to find

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James D. Doyle, Vanda Grubišić, William O. J. Brown, Stephan F. J. De Wekker, Andreas Dörnbrack, Qingfang Jiang, Shane D. Mayor, and Martin Weissmann

compressible flows. Part I: Comparison of two- and three-dimensional flows. J. Atmos. Sci. , 53 , 3173 – 3191 . Golaz , J-C. , S. Wang , J. D. Doyle , and J. M. Schmidt , 2005 : COAMPS-LES: Model evaluation and analysis of second-and third-moment vertical velocity budgets. Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 116 , 487 – 517 . Grubišić , V. , and J. M. Lewis , 2004 : Sierra Wave Project revisited: 50 years later. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 85 , 1127 – 1142 . Grubišić , V. , and B. J

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Lukas Strauss, Stefano Serafin, and Vanda Grubišić

range of conditions, a thorough evaluation of the relevant terms in the equations of motion along parcel trajectories would be required. Such an analysis is not possible from observational data alone, motivating the need for high-resolution numerical simulations. 5. Summary and conclusions Idealized conceptual models of atmospheric rotors in the lee of a mountain range were developed in the 1950s during the Sierra Wave Project ( Holmboe and Klieforth 1957 ) and refined until the 1970s ( Lester and

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