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Jeremy J. Mazon, Christopher L. Castro, David K. Adams, Hsin-I Chang, Carlos M. Carrillo, and John J. Brost

sounding are discussed later in the next section. The time period considered for the analysis is from 1993 to 2010. To define large-scale atmospheric circulation characteristics, we use the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR; Mesinger et al. 2006 ). b. Stage IV precipitation product To verify the development and propagation of severe convective events, the combined stage IV radar–gauge precipitation product, as described by Zhang et al. (2011) , is used for the period 2002–10. This dataset is a

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Thang M. Luong, Christopher L. Castro, Hsin-I Chang, Timothy Lahmers, David K. Adams, and Carlos A. Ochoa-Moya

upward trend ( Kunkel et al. 2013 ). Any long-term increases in precipitation intensity should be most apparent during the North American monsoon (NAM; Adams and Comrie 1997 ) in late summer (July–early September) because this is the period of warm-season severe weather caused by convective thunderstorms. There is observational evidence to suggest that monsoon precipitation is becoming more extreme in the Southwest and in northwestern Mexico (e.g., Anderson et al. 2010 ; Petrie et al. 2014

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Patrick Grenier

(metrics) employed to investigate the PI problem. Section 3 presents the results, which are interpreted in Section 4 . Section 5 consists of a summary with concluding remarks. The appendix contains the list of acronyms used in the paper. 2. Data and methods a. Study sites The study is conducted for 12 sites (cities) over North America (see Table 1 and Fig. 1 ). Each site is identified with coordinates of a station from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) network, but the reference

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Eric Holt and Jun Wang

found a declining trend in surface wind speed over the last five decades in many parts of the world (as summarized in Table 1 ), including Australia ( Roderick et al. 2007 ; McVicar et al. 2008 ), China ( Xu et al. 2006a , b ), Europe ( Pirazzoli and Tomasin 2003 ), and North America ( Klink 1999 ; Tuller 2004 ; Pryor et al. 2007 ; Hundecha et al. 2008 ). Over the United States, Pryor et al. (2009) found a 0.84 ± 0.32 m s −1 decrease in the 90th-percentile 10-m winds from 1973 to 2005. Table

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Jamie D. Hoover, Nolan Doesken, Kelly Elder, Melinda Laituri, and Glen E. Liston

bonding, and an overall decrease in mobility. The rate of metamorphism depends primarily on temperature. Thus, a higher threshold is required to transport snow once bonding has occurred. Over the past 30–50 years, declining wind speeds have been observed at in situ stations in North America, Europe, Australia, Canada, Switzerland, and China ( Klink 1999 ; Pirazzoli and Tomasin 2003 ; Tuller 2004 ; Roderick et al. 2007 ; McVicar et al. 2008 , 2010 ; Pryor et al. 2009 ; Jiang et al. 2010

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Macy E. Howarth and Neil F. Laird

the rate of heat loss from a cylinder of water under varying freezing temperature and wind conditions) was founded with application to assessing impacts on researchers in Antarctica. Since then several formulations of the WCI and WCT have been used for studies at locations in the Arctic, Europe, Asia, South America, and North America. Although many are familiar with WCT from its use in operational meteorology to describe outdoor conditions in winter environments, only a small handful of studies

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James Foster, Manfred Owe, and Albert Rango

460 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE AND APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME22Snow Cover and Temperature Relationships in North America and Eurasia JAMES FOSTER, MANFRED OWE AND ALBERT RANGONASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Earth Survey Applications Division, Hydrological Sciences Branch, Greenbelt, MD 20771(Manuscript received 28 June 1982, in final form 24 November 1982)ABSTRACT In this study the snow cover

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Nina S. Oakley and Kelly T. Redmond

commonly develop over the eastern Pacific and North America and disrupt the westerly flow. These can lead to the development of quasi-barotropic, slow-moving closed-low features ( Weaver 1962 ; Monteverdi 1976 ). Previous work has examined the spatial and seasonal distributions and durations of 200-hPa cutoff lows in the Northern Hemisphere ( Kentarchos and Davies 1998 ; Nieto et al. 2005 ) and the spatial and temporal distribution of 500-hPa closed lows in the Northern Hemisphere ( Bell and Bosart

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F. L. Martin, J. R. Borsting, F. J. Steckbeck, and A. H. Manhard Jr.

508 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLU.~m2Statistical Prediction Methods for North American Anticyclones~F. L. MA~X~N, J. R. BoRsxnqo, F. J. SX~CKBECK A~D A. H. MANHARD, JR. U. S. Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, Calif. (Manuscript received 17 September 1962, in revised form 18 March 1963)ABSTRACT Statistical prediction methods of forecasting the 24-hr movement and

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J. Brant Dodson, Marilé Colón Robles, Jessica E. Taylor, Cayley C. DeFontes, and Kristen L. Weaver

1. Introduction On 21 August 2017, North America experienced a total solar eclipse, with the umbral shadow passing across the contiguous United States from the West to East Coasts ( Fig. 1 ). It was the first total solar eclipse since 1979 for which totality was visible from the contiguous United States. The path of totality crossed the west coast of Oregon at 1716 UTC, moved northwest to southeast across 14 states, and exited the eastern coast of South Carolina at 1849 UTC. Because the eclipse

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