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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Andrew J. Newman

1. Introduction The diurnal cycle is a dominant feature of monsoon regions of the world. Within the largest monsoon system—the Asian monsoon—the Tibetan Plateau generates significant, large-scale, diurnally varying circulations, vertical motion, and diabatic heating ( Luo and Yanai 1984 ; Nitta 1983 ; Krishnamurti and Kishtawal 2000 ). The North American summer monsoon system, which develops in response to heating over the elevated terrain of Mexico and the western United States

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

, K. , 1984 : Characteristics of Baiu front as predominant subtropical front in the summer Northern Hemisphere. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 62 , 880 – 892 . Ninomiya , K. , 2007 : Similarity and difference between the South Atlantic convergence zone and the Baiu frontal zone simulated by an AGCM. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 85 , 277 – 299 . Ninomiya , K. , 2008 : Similarities and differences among the South Indian Ocean convergence zone, the North American convergence zone, and other

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Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Xiping Zeng, Shoichi Shige, and Yukari Takayabu

accounted for 40% of the total rain amount from 20°N to 20°S for the 3-yr period 1998–2000. They also found that stratiform amounts were lower over land (ranging from 26% to 38%) than over ocean (ranging from 41% to 53%). For example, stratiform rain accounted for 53% of the total rainfall over the southeast Pacific but only 36% of the rain over North and South America. These findings are in good agreement with the current results in terms of land–ocean contrast. However, since the current results are

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

. Liebmann , 1990 : The intraseasonal (30–50 day) oscillation of the Australian summer monsoon. J. Atmos. Sci. , 47 , 2909 – 2924 . Hendon , H. H. , and M. L. Salby , 1994 : The life cycle of the Madden–Julian oscillation. J. Atmos. Sci. , 51 , 2225 – 2237 . Higgins , R. W. , and W. Shi , 2001 : Intercomparison of the principal modes of interannual and intraseasonal variability of the North American monsoon system. J. Climate , 14 , 403 – 417 . Houze , R. A. , 1982 : Cloud

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

is spread over a deeper column that extends into the 5–12-km layer, whereas SW heating in subsidence regions tends to be confined to the 2–5-km layer. The only evidence of enhanced SW heating by clouds between 2 and 5 km is confined to small regions of very persistent stratocumulus near the west coasts of North and South America and Africa. The column-integrated impact of clouds on column SW heating is generally small but exhibits a distinct pattern indicating that low clouds consistently

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Samson Hagos, Chidong Zhang, Wei-Kuo Tao, Steve Lang, Yukari N. Takayabu, Shoichi Shige, Masaki Katsumata, Bill Olson, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

heating. 3. Results a. Mean profiles over global tropics profiles and regional variability In this section, the global and regional mean profiles from the eight products (four reanalyses and four TRMM), as well as the soundings, are compared. The tropical domain is divided into nine regions based on TRMM (3B42) gridded 10-yr mean rainfall results ( Fig. 2 ). They represent regions of continents (Africa and South America), monsoons (Asian monsoon), warm pools (West Pacific), the ITCZ (central, east

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