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Deborah A. McGrath, Jonathan P. Evans, C. Ken Smith, David G. Haskell, Neil W. Pelkey, Robert R. Gottfried, Charles D. Brockett, Matthew D. Lane, and E. Douglass Williams

extraction, and more recently, urban sprawl and large-scale conversion to intensively managed pine plantations ( Bonnicksen and Burton, 2003 ; Wear and Greis, 2001 ). The portion of the Cumberland Plateau located in Tennessee contains some of the largest remaining tracts of privately owned hardwood forest in North America. Starting in the 1950s and up to the present, native forest on the southern Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee has been converted to loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda ) plantations at

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Christopher Potter, Pusheng Zhang, Steven Klooster, Vanessa Genovese, Shashi Shekhar, and Vipin Kumar

, northern Europe, and Australia correlate well with variations in El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) climate indices (CIs). Other variations in river discharge records from the eastern United States, Europe, and tropical South America and northern Africa reflect the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Potter et al. ( Potter et al., 2003 ) have reviewed evidence that NAO influences the climate and vegetation dynamics of tropical South America. Oceanic climate is not the only factor potentially influencing

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Jeffrey A. Hicke, David B. Lobell, and Gregory P. Asner

exported to other countries or continents before being consumed. In the latter case, depending on destination, this export appears as a C sink in atmospheric inversion model results ( Pacala et al., 2001 ). A recent study of North American NPP using 17 yr of satellite observations identified the central United States as an area of large NPP increase ( Hicke et al., 2002a ). Although satellite data provided reasonable estimates of changes in vegetation activity, mechanisms driving these changes were

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