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Valliappa Lakshmanan and John S. Kain

. (2005) ) core with 4-km grid spacing and 35 vertical levels. The 2CAPS was produced at the Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms at the University of Oklahoma (also using the ARW core) with 2-km grid spacing and 51 vertical levels. All three forecast systems used initial and lateral boundary conditions from the North American Model ( Rogers et al. 2009 ). The observations are from the stage II rainfall accumulation dataset produced by NCEP ( Baldwin and Mitchell 1998 ). The 1 June case

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Keith F. Brill and Fedor Mesinger

degree of difficulty involved in achieving such bias-corrected forecasts. This assertion is speculative, requiring that the dHdA method approximate the effects of the systematic error removal algorithm used to perform the bias correction. Figure 3a shows the ETS (histogram bars), ETS CPR (lines), and bias (symbols) for the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Mesoscale (NAM) model along with the same for the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS) for 24-h QPFs at the 24-h

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Christopher A. Davis, Barbara G. Brown, Randy Bullock, and John Halley-Gotway

of the distributions of latitude and longitude of observed object centroids. Fig . A1. Interest functions for (a) centroid separation (solid, gray) and minimum boundary separation (dashed), both in km; (b) angle difference (°); and (c) area ratio (solid, gray) and area intersection ratio (dashed). Table 1. Configuration of numerical models: NAM, North American Model of NCEP; MYJ, Mellor–Yamada–Janjić ( Janjić 2002 ); and YSU, Yonsei University ( Noh et al. 2003 ). The WRF single-moment six

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