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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Jason C. Knievel, and William Y. Y. Cheng

observations Soil moisture observations used to validate 4DWX-DPG are taken from the North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD) at Texas A&M University ( ), which harmonizes and quality controls several in situ soil moisture observing platforms. Within the region encompassed by the 4DWX-DPG 10-km domain, the NASMD observations come from 27 U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN; Schaefer et al. 2007 ) stations and 15 global positioning system

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Hailing Zhang, Zhaoxia Pu, and Xuebo Zhang

. , 83 , 407 – 430 . Mellor, G. L. , and Yamada T. , 1982 : Development of a turbulence closure model for geophysical fluid problems . Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. , 20 , 851 – 875 . Mesinger, F. , and Coauthors , 2006 : North American Regional Reanalysis . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 87 , 343 – 360 . Mlawer, E. J. , Taubman S. J. , Brown P. D. , Iacono M. J. , and Clough S. A. , 1997 : Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Derek D. Jensen

to the geographical area defined by those soil texture classes. Observations of volumetric soil moisture, which align with the soil moisture analyses, come from the Texas A&M University North American Soil Moisture Database (NASMD; ), which harmonizes and quality controls several in situ soil moisture observing platforms. We considered only stations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN; Schaefer et al. 2007 ) and from the

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Feimin Zhang and Zhaoxia Pu

weather prediction (NWP; e.g., Golding 1993 ; Meyer and Rao 1999 ; Gultepe et al. 2016 ; Pu et al. 2016 ; Pu 2017 ). Zhou et al. (2012) evaluated the performance of low visibility/fog predictions over North America using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) operational forecast models. Results showed that the accuracy of visibility/fog forecasts from these models was poor in comparison to the accuracy of operational precipitation forecasts from the same models. Previous

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Jeffrey D. Massey, W. James Steenburgh, Sebastian W. Hoch, and Jason C. Knievel

area defined as playa. The soil-texture class is defined by a 16-category U.S. Geological Survey dataset, which is also modified to include playa, white sand, and lava soil-texture classes. Initial soil-moisture and soil-temperature fields at 5-, 25-, 70-, and 150-cm depths are obtained from a relatively coarse 1.0° Global Forecasting System (GFS) analysis because anecdotal evidence suggests that under some circumstances it outperforms the 12-km North American Model (NAM) analysis at DPG. These

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Sean M. Wile, Joshua P. Hacker, and Kenneth H. Chilcoat

nature run, the WRF was initialized at 0000 UTC 19 January 2009 from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), which also provided lateral boundary conditions. Soil temperature and moisture were reset every 3 h to the NARR, preventing land surface drift during the 10-day nature run. Synthetic observations were produced every 3 h; observation locations and physical quantities were identical to the actual radiosonde observations available in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction

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Joshua P. Hacker and Lili Lei

North American weather forecasts . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 80 , 1363 – 1384 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1999)080<1363:TNPENT>2.0.CO;2 . Lorenz , E. N. , 1995 : Predictability—A problem partly solved. Proc. Seminar on Predictability, Vol. 1, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 1–18 . Lorenz , E. N. , 2005 : Designing chaotic models . J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 1574 – 1587 , doi: 10.1175/JAS3430.1 . Reinecke , P. , and D. Durran , 2009 : Initial-condition sensitivities and the

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H. J. S. Fernando, E. R. Pardyjak, S. Di Sabatino, F. K. Chow, S. F. J. De Wekker, S. W. Hoch, J. Hacker, J. C. Pace, T. Pratt, Z. Pu, W. J. Steenburgh, C. D. Whiteman, Y. Wang, D. Zajic, B. Balsley, R. Dimitrova, G. D. Emmitt, C. W. Higgins, J. C. R. Hunt, J. C. Knievel, D. Lawrence, Y. Liu, D. F. Nadeau, E. Kit, B. W. Blomquist, P. Conry, R. S. Coppersmith, E. Creegan, M. Felton, A. Grachev, N. Gunawardena, C. Hang, C. M. Hocut, G. Huynh, M. E. Jeglum, D. Jensen, V. Kulandaivelu, M. Lehner, L. S. Leo, D. Liberzon, J. D. Massey, K. McEnerney, S. Pal, T. Price, M. Sghiatti, Z. Silver, M. Thompson, H. Zhang, and T. Zsedrovits

input from MATERHORN meteorologists as well as logistical and manpower constraints. The forecasting products employed included DPG’s high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model–based advanced Four-Dimensional (4DWX) weather modeling system developed by NCAR ( Liu et al. 2008 ), a 30-member 4DWX ensemble, North American Mesoscale (NAM), and Global Forecast System (GFS) model outputs as well as satellite products. A typical IOP lasted 24 h, although a few lasted longer or shorter. The

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Robert S. Arthur, Katherine A. Lundquist, Jeffrey D. Mirocha, and Fotini K. Chow

Cosgrove , B. A. , and Coauthors , 2003 : Land surface model spin-up behavior in the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 8845 , . Daniels , M. H. , K. A. Lundquist , J. D. Mirocha , D. J. Wiersema , and F. K. Chow , 2016 : A new vertical grid nesting capability in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 144 , 3725 – 3747 , . 10

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