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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, and John M. Peters

conducted in which the north–south model terrain (mimicking the Sierras de Córdoba in Argentina, South America) was altered by systematically varying maximum terrain height between 500 and 4500 m. The idealized numerical modeling simulations displayed systematic variations in DCI timing and location, as well as subsequent supercell intensity, updraft and downdraft structure, cold pool and rainfall characteristics, and upscale growth rates that varied with modified environmental characteristics caused by

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Angela K. Rowe, and Lynn A. McMurdie

show why this region is highly favored for convective initiation and subsequent upscale growth. Convergence is maximized near the SDC due to the impingement of the South American low-level jet (SALLJ) from the north and ageostrophic midlevel flow from the south on the elevated terrain. Because of the descent of upper-level air in the lee of the Andes, a mechanical capping inversion exists over the region that inhibits convective initiation. Moisture is advected into subtropical South America from

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Zachary S. Bruick, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Daniel J. Cecil

1. Introduction Hail in subtropical South America can be very large ( Rasmussen et al. 2014 ) and frequent (10–30 storms per year in central Argentina; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ), and it causes significant impacts to property and the agricultural economy in this region. Hail has been studied for more than five decades, yet relatively little is known about the storms that produce hail or the environments that support hail-producing storms in subtropical South America. Hail research in the

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Robert J. Trapp, Kristen L. Rasmussen, and Paola V. Salio

.1175/JAMC-D-14-0114.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0114.1 Ribeiro , B. Z. , and L. F. Bosart , 2018 : Elevated mixed layers and associated severe thunderstorm environments in South and North America . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 146 , 3 – 28 , . 10.1175/MWR-D-17-0121.1 Romatschke , U. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 2010 : Extreme summer convection in South America . J. Climate , 23 , 3761 – 3791 , . 10.1175/2010JCLI3465.1 Salio

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Adam C. Varble, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola Salio, Joseph C. Hardin, Nitin Bharadwaj, Paloma Borque, Paul J. DeMott, Zhe Feng, Thomas C. J. Hill, James N. Marquis, Alyssa Matthews, Fan Mei, Rusen Öktem, Vagner Castro, Lexie Goldberger, Alexis Hunzinger, Kevin R. Barry, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Greg M. McFarquhar, Lynn A. McMurdie, Mikhail Pekour, Heath Powers, David M. Romps, Celeste Saulo, Beat Schmid, Jason M. Tomlinson, Susan C. van den Heever, Alla Zelenyuk, Zhixiao Zhang, and Edward J. Zipser

Jr. , 2016 : Contribution of extreme convective storms to rainfall in South America . J. Hydrometeor. , 17 , 353 – 367 , . Ribeiro , B. Z. , and L. F. Bosart , 2018 : Elevated mixed layers and associated severe thunderstorm environments in South and North America . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 146 , 3 – 28 , . Romatschke , U. , and R. A. Houze Jr. , 2010 : Extreme summer convection in South America . J

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Robert J. Trapp, Karen A. Kosiba, James N. Marquis, Matthew R. Kumjian, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Joshua Wurman, Paola Salio, Maxwell A. Grover, Paul Robinson, and Deanna A. Hence

1. Introduction Satellite observations suggest that thunderstorms in southeast South America are among the most intense and deepest in the world ( Zipser et al. 2006 ), are prolific hail producers ( Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ; Mezher et al. 2012 ; Bang and Cecil 2019 ; Bruick et al. 2019 ), and often are accompanied by extreme lightning activity and flooding (e.g., Rasmussen et al. 2014 ). In Argentina specifically, thunderstorm-generated hazards adversely impact a largely urban population

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Stephen W. Nesbitt, Paola V. Salio, Eldo Ávila, Phillip Bitzer, Lawrence Carey, V. Chandrasekar, Wiebke Deierling, Francina Dominguez, Maria Eugenia Dillon, C. Marcelo Garcia, David Gochis, Steven Goodman, Deanna A. Hence, Karen A. Kosiba, Matthew R. Kumjian, Timothy Lang, Lorena Medina Luna, James Marquis, Robert Marshall, Lynn A. McMurdie, Ernani de Lima Nascimento, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Rita Roberts, Angela K. Rowe, Juan José Ruiz, Eliah F.M.T. São Sabbas, A. Celeste Saulo, Russ S. Schumacher, Yanina Garcia Skabar, Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado, Robert J. Trapp, Adam C. Varble, James Wilson, Joshua Wurman, Edward J. Zipser, Ivan Arias, Hernán Bechis, and Maxwell A. Grover

the future ( National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2016 ). With a goal of improving the understanding of global severe convective storms, we are motivated by the following questions: To what extent do the meteorological and geographical ingredients for severe convective storms in intense convective hotspots, often patterned after storms in North America, translate across the globe? Are the hazards associated with archetypical storms and their environments (i.e., supercells

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Hernán Bechis, Paola Salio, and Juan José Ruiz

dryline is required. Some studies ( Owen 1966 ; Hoch and Markowski 2005 ; Schultz et al. 2007 ) use surface observations to manually detect drylines. Based on this approach they found that drylines are observed over the U.S. Great Plains on 32%–45% of the spring season days (April, May, and June). Duell and Van Den Broeke (2016) developed an objective algorithm to detect drylines in the Mississippi River valley (United States), where drylines are less frequent, using data from the North American

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Jake P. Mulholland, Stephen W. Nesbitt, and Robert J. Trapp

initially favor supercells as the primary convective mode, may later favor a more rapid upscale transition into MCSs via cold pool amalgamation and/or surging outflows (e.g., Coniglio et al. 2010 ; Peters et al. 2017 ; and references therein). One region of the world that is susceptible to rapid upscale growth of deep moist convection is the northern half of Argentina, South America. The present study is focused along an approximately north–south mountain chain called the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC) (e

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Timothy J. Lang, Eldo E. Ávila, Richard J. Blakeslee, Jeff Burchfield, Matthew Wingo, Phillip M. Bitzer, Lawrence D. Carey, Wiebke Deierling, Steven J. Goodman, Bruno Lisboa Medina, Gregory Melo, and Rodolfo G. Pereyra

1. Introduction a. Background North-central Argentina has long been recognized as home to some of the strongest thunderstorms on Earth ( Zipser et al. 2006 ; Liu et al. 2007 ; Cecil and Blankenship 2012 ). In particular, Córdoba Province and surrounding regions frequently suffer from large hail and other forms of severe convective weather ( Mezher et al. 2012 ; Bruick et al. 2019 ). This region features unique topography that includes a small mountain range called the Sierras de Córdoba (SDC

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