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Kingtse C. Mo, Li-Chuan Chen, Shraddhanand Shukla, Theodore J. Bohn, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

system other than precipitation come from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). For surface variables, 2-m temperature and specific humidity and 10-m winds are used. The data have been adjusted to the surface for terrain height ( Cosgrove et al. 2003 ), and biases in the NARR downward solar radiation climatology are corrected using satellite observations from Pinker et al. (2003) . The precipitation data used in the NCEP system are the Climate Prediction Center (CPC)/Office of Hydrologic

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Clifford Mass, Adam Skalenakis, and Michael Warner

northern California, and modest increases in the remainder of coastal California. To appraise the significance of this pattern and the nature of extreme precipitation trends over the west coast of North America, the present study examines extreme precipitation events over the region for the period 1950–2009 using high-quality station data and the discharge rates of major, unregulated river systems. 3. Analysis of trends in precipitation This study makes use of precipitation records from the U

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David Small, Shafiqul Islam, and Mathew Barlow

1. Introduction Most studies of regional precipitation anomalies associated with regional teleconnection patterns such as the Pacific–North America (PNA) pattern or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) tend to focus on the winter. Few studies have examined interregional patterns of precipitation and the linkages to global and regional circulation patterns in seasons other than winter ( Kingston et al. 2006 ). This is a particularly important consideration because the largest trends in precipitation

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Christopher L. Castro, Adriana B. Beltrán-Przekurat, and Roger A. Pielke Sr.

time scale and spatial variability on the continental scale, the atmospheric forcing is related primarily to naturally occurring atmosphere–ocean interactions, such as El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). This study investigates the statistical linkages between precipitation and land surface parameters in North America, specifically the contiguous United States and Mexico, within the recent observational record (since the late twentieth century). It is motivated by our prior work, which

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Richard Seager, Jennifer Nakamura, and Mingfang Ting

national economy. Often not recognized, drought also has serious impacts on the mental health of farming families and people in agricultural communities with long-lasting effects [see U.S.-based review by Vins et al. (2015) ]. Improved understanding and forecasting of drought at least provides the possibility of improved anticipation of, and adaptation to, drought conditions with potential benefits for people and society. Understanding the physical causes of droughts in North America, and the relative

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Rachel R. McCrary and Linda O. Mearns

1. Introduction Seasonal snow cover is an important component of the climate of North America. It plays a direct role in the surface energy budget through its high albedo and low thermal conductivity, which have important implications for the snow–albedo feedback ( Qu and Hall 2007 ) and permafrost ( Lawrence and Slater 2010 ). The spatial extent of snow cover over North America influences the atmospheric circulation on monthly to seasonal time scales ( Cohen and Entekhabi 2001 ; Sobolowski et

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Enrique R. Vivoni, Kinwai Tai, and David J. Gochis

such region is the southwest United States, where summer convective rainfall is promoted and evapotranspiration (ET) is sensitive to soil moisture during the North American monsoon (NAM; Hong and Pan 2000 ; Kurc and Small 2007 ; Vivoni et al. 2007c , 2008b ). In this region, high soil moisture tends to lower surface albedo and the Bowen ratio (i.e., sensible to latent heat flux ratio), which in turn increases net radiation ( Zheng and Eltahir 1998 ; Eltahir 1998 ). The increase of total

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Michael D. Warner, Clifford F. Mass, and Eric P. Salathé Jr.

but cover only a relatively small portion of the circumference of the globe at any time. ARs are crucial components of the hydrologic cycle in many parts of the world, including western North America (e.g., Dettinger 2004 ; Ralph et al. 2006 , 2013 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ), western South America ( Viale and Nunez 2011 ), and Europe ( Sodemann and Stohl 2013 ; Lavers et al. 2013 ). Global mean atmospheric water vapor is projected to increase with surface warming at roughly the rate of Clausius

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Holger Fritze, Iris T. Stewart, and Edzer Pebesma

1. Introduction Surface water supplies throughout western North America hinge on a highly seasonal and variable mountain runoff pattern that is sensitive to climatic variability and change. While mountain regions in general contribute twice as much discharge to the terrestrial portion of the hydrologic cycle as the adjacent lowlands ( Viviroli et al. 2007 ), in western North America, the largest share of that precipitation is deposited between the months of October and March, resulting in a

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Long Yang, James Smith, Mary Lynn Baeck, and Efrat Morin

1. Introduction Flash floods in arid/semiarid regions are of great societal and environmental importance, and yet the hydrology, hydrometeorology, and hydroclimatology of flooding are still poorly understood (e.g., Higgins et al. 2003 ). In this study, we focus on storms that produce flash floods in the arid/semiarid southwestern United States. Much of this region receives more than half of its mean annual rainfall during the North American monsoon (NAM), which typically begins in late June or

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