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Peter N. Blossey, Christopher S. Bretherton, and Johannes Mohrmann

level legs in the subcloud and cloud layer and repeated upward and downward legs across the inversion. [See Fig. 4 of Albrecht et al. (2019) for an example.] Using HYSPLIT trajectories ( Stein et al. 2015 ) based on the Global Forecast System and Global Data Assimilation System analysis from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, the eastward return flight two days later was planned so that the same boundary layer air masses would be sampled again by the GV. In addition to in situ

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Patrik Benáček and Máté Mile

in boundary layers at the 95% significance level, with the largest normalized RMS impact of 1% with respect to CAM100. A significant degradation was also detected for the short-term (6–18 h) forecast of temperature in boundary layers, with the largest normalized RMS impact of 0.3%. In future years, it is planned to assimilate the particular polar-orbiting satellite instruments into the operational ALADIN/CHMI model together with the VarBC scheme. Based on the results of this paper, the VarBC

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Bradley W. Klotz and David S. Nolan

instruments indicate specific details about precipitation, wind, or thermodynamic structure in all TC basins. Determining direct TC intensity estimates, however, remains a shortcoming of spaceborne platforms that struggle to identify small-scale features related to storm intensity. Therefore, in situ and remote sensing observations from hurricane-penetrating aircraft remain the most accurate and preferable source of intensity information for forecasters. Operational forecast centers report TC intensity

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Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Paquita Zuidema, Christopher Bretherton, Christian Schwartz, Edwin Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Shaunna Donaher, Mampi Sarkar, Jeremy McGibbon, Alison D. Nugent, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, Patrick Minnis, Robindra Paliknoda, Louis Lussier, Jorgen Jensen, J. Vivekanandan, Scott Ellis, Peisang Tsai, Robert Rilling, Julie Haggerty, Teresa Campos, Meghan Stell, Michael Reeves, Stuart Beaton, John Allison, Gregory Stossmeister, Samuel Hall, and Sebastian Schmidt

; van der Dussen et al. 2013 ). The second was a satellite-derived composite ( Sandu et al. 2010 ; de Roode et al. 2016 ) of several thousand Lagrangian trajectories based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud observations with trajectories based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalyses. Neither case includes a good accompanying set of aerosol observations in or above the boundary layer or the robust statistics on horizontal cloud and

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Jenny V. Turton, Thomas Mölg, and Dirk Van As

investigate the meteorology and atmospheric processes present in this region. Because of the relatively short observational period in northeast Greenland (and especially over 79N glacier, where only four incomplete years of data are available), reanalysis data are used to extend the climatology back to 1979, within the region. A regional case study using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model complements the observations and provides additional information on the links between synoptic

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Vasubandhu Misra and Amit Bhardwaj

year leads to unrealistic onset and demise dates of the NEM season as a result of the CA curve overlapping with the SISM season in boreal summer and fall seasons. It also becomes clear, from the analysis presented in the following section, why we avoid the use of rainfall for defining the onset and demise of the NEM. We make use of the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR; Saha et al. 2010 ) to make composites of upper-air and upper-ocean variables, and these are presented in the following

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Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Johannes Mohrmann, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Andrew Gettelman, Charles G. Bardeen, Bruce A. Albrecht, and Paquita Zuidema

estimated from isobaric trajectories initialized at 500-m altitude (approximately 960 hPa) from NCEP operational analyses and short-range forecasts ( A19 ). The westbound low-level sampling was weighted toward stratocumulus which was projected to break up as it advected downwind over the following 2 days. The eastbound low-level sampling was substantially farther south and west, as can be seen by comparing the thick dashed lines and the thick solid lines in Fig. 1 , and predominantly sampled shallow

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Johannes Mohrmann, Christopher S. Bretherton, Isabel L. McCoy, Jeremy McGibbon, Robert Wood, Virendra Ghate, Bruce Albrecht, Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, and Rabindra Palikonda

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-15 ( GOES-15 ) observations using algorithms originally developed for the NASA Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System (CERES) project ( Minnis et al. 2008a , 2011 ) and adapted for application to other imagers on geostationary satellites ( Minnis et al. 2008b ). Except where noted, all retrievals are averaged over a 2° × 2° box centered on the coordinates in question (e.g., aircraft or trajectory position) and are at an hourly resolution. The 2° box

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Mampi Sarkar, Paquita Zuidema, Bruce Albrecht, Virendra Ghate, Jorgen Jensen, Johannes Mohrmann, and Robert Wood

Lagrangian resampling 2 days later, constrains the “outbound” CA-to-HI flight path to a more northerly route. This route initially follows along 40°N, with the first boundary layer module beginning at 40°N, 130°W, or 10°N and at the western edge of the climatological maximum. Forward trajectories, calculated using HYSPLIT ( Stein et al. 2015 ) and the National Centers for Environmental Predication (NCEP) Global Forecast System meteorology, were initialized at 40°N, 130°W and further west at approximately

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