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Howard B. Bluestein

:// ) and a tornado watch was issued almost 3 h before the event (information online at )], the details of the storm’s evolution were not easily forecasted. Since the Greensburg event was associated with prolific, tornado-producing, parent supercells, it is important to analyze the details of this event to learn how we can better forecast future similar events and to identify specific gaps in our fundamental

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Huijun Wang and Ke Fan

1. Introduction Seasonal time-scale dynamical climate predictions based on climate models are of great value to society for agriculture, water resource management, flood and drought disaster reduction, and many other uses. These models, both experimental and operational, were first developed in the early 1990s ( Zeng et al. 1990 ; Ji et al. 1996 ; Kumar et al. 1996 ), based on the successful predictions of El Niño by prototype coupled ocean–atmosphere models ( Zebiak and Cane 1987 ). “Two

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Jianhua Sun and Sixiong Zhao

weather systems responsible for the long duration of this freezing precipitation event. These systems include the synoptic conditions, details of the quasi-stationary front, and the sounding profiles associated with FZRA. We believe that this conceptual model has the potential to be used by operational weather forecasters for predicting freezing precipitation events. In this study, our investigation of freezing precipitation in southern China from January to February 2008 is mainly based on

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M. Issa Lélé and Peter J. Lamb

–Clapeyron equation. e. ITF delineation Following Eldridge (1957) and Ilesanmi (1971) , we use the 15°C T d isodrosotherm to delineate the surface ITF. This criterion is in widespread operational use in West Africa, often in combination with a zero meridional wind component criterion. That hybrid delineation also has been adopted operationally by the Africa Desk of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Weather Service’s (NOAA/NWS) Climate Prediction Center (information online at http

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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

responses to TIW-induced SST forcing are underestimated by about a factor of 2 as indicated by the slopes. Nevertheless, the simulation skill from this empirical model is still comparable to that represented in the high horizontal resolution European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECWMF) operational model (e.g., Chelton et al. 2005 ). Similarly, the binned scatterplots of the divergence and curl perturbations are illustrated in Fig. 14b . Again, the estimated slopes are about half of those

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