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Larry W. O’Neill, Tracy Haack, and Theodore Durland

-level wind forecasts have been evaluated in several modeling studies ( Kindle et al. 2002 ; Haack et al. 2005 ; Pullen et al. 2006 , 2007 ; Hong et al. 2011 ), and the coupling of wind stress curl and divergence to spatial variations in SST has been documented in the U.S. West Coast region by Haack et al. (2008) . These studies have demonstrated that COAMPS is capable of predicting all-weather surface winds with good accuracy and with high spatial and temporal resolution. For this study, the model

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Yi-Hui Wang and W. Timothy Liu

AIRS data from the winter months between December 2003 and February 2013 are analyzed. Both the TRMM and AIRS data are provided by the NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center. To assess the satellite-derived results, we used reanalysis data from the ERA-Interim (e.g., Dee et al. 2011 ), which are produced by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts and are available since 1979 onward at a 0.75° resolution. The atmospheric variables of the ERA-Interim data

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Kotaro Katsube and Masaru Inatsu

K. Saito , 1991 : Description of a non-hydrostatic model developed at the Forecast Research Department of the MRI. MRI Tech. Rep. 28, 238 pp. Jones , S. , and Coauthors , 2003 : The extratropical transition of tropical cyclones: Forecast challenges, current understanding, and future directions . Wea. Forecasting , 18 , 1052 – 1092 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018<1052:TETOTC>2.0.CO;2 . Kain , J. , and J. Fritsch , 1993 : Convective parameterization for mesoscale models: The

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, and Takafumi Miyasaka

additional product of the Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis (JRA-55) project of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) called JRA-55CHS ( Masunaga et al. 2018 ). The atmospheric forecast model of JRA-55CHS is the same as the one used for the main product of JRA-55 ( Kobayashi et al. 2015 ; Harada et al. 2016 ) and JRA-55 Conventional ( Kobayashi et al. 2014 ). The horizontal resolution is TL319 (equivalent to ~55-km resolution) with 60 sigma-pressure hybrid vertical levels. For the lower-boundary condition, JRA

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Hyodae Seo

, experiments, and data a. Model description The Scripps Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Regional (SCOAR) model ( Seo et al. 2007a , 2014 , 2016 ; http://hseo.whoi.edu/scoar ) is a regional coupled climate model that couples the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) Model to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS; Haidvogel et al. 2000 ; Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2005 ). The interacting boundary layer is based on the bulk formula ( Fairall et al. 1996 ; 2003 ), which calculates the

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