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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

by a global climate model and JMA operational nonhydrostatic mesoscale model (henceforth referred to as the global and mesoscale analyses, respectively), provided by JMA (2015b) . The global analysis data comprised 6-hourly tropospheric wind velocity, temperature, and relative humidity at the surface, 1000-, 925-, 850-, 700-, 600-, 500-, 400-, and 300-hPa levels on a 0.5° latitude × 0.5° longitude grid. The mesoscale analysis data comprised 3-hourly tropospheric wind velocity, temperature, and

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

-001 . 10.2151/sola.2013-001 Japan Meteorological Agency , 2013 : Outline of the operational numerical weather prediction at the Japan Meteorological Agency (March 2013). Japan Meteorological Agency, accessed 21 November 2017, http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/jma-eng/jma-center/nwp/outline2013-nwp/index.htm . Kuo , Y.-H. , R. J. Reed , and S. Low-Nam , 1991a : Effects of surface energy fluxes during the early development and rapid intensification stages of seven explosive cyclones in the western

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

that the cyclone type that appeared and rapidly developed over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, the so-called Pacific Ocean–ocean (PO–O) cyclones, was more reinforced by the effect of latent heating than were other types. This may be because the PO–O cyclones occur under moister environments. From the viewpoint of forecasting explosive cyclone development, Kuwano-Yoshida and Enomoto (2013) demonstrated that the underestimation of latent heat release in a numerical model is a primary factor in PO

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