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Stephen D. Eckermann, James D. Doyle, P. Alex Reinecke, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Ronald B. Smith, David C. Fritts, and Andreas Dörnbrack

procedures for generating and analyzing gravity wave products were tested as part of a larger coordinated DEEPWAVE “dry run” from 5 to 18 August 2013. Immediately after download and postprocessing, AIRS gravity wave products were plotted and then uploaded as image files to an online field catalog, where the science team could access this imagery through a web tool, along with many other products, such as forecasts from a small subset of operational NWP systems. The DEEPWAVE science team convened daily

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Jun Ma, Karl W. Hoppel, David D. Kuhl, Douglas R. Allen, James A. Doyle, Kevin C. Viner, Benjamin C. Ruston, Nancy L. Baker, Steven D. Swadley, Timothy R. Whitcomb, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Liang Xu, N. Kaifler, B. Kaifler, Iain M. Reid, Damian J. Murphy, and Peter T. Love

, closing the outer loop, which repeats every 6 h and generates a new analysis every 6 h. To better resolve tides in the MLT (see section 4 ), here, we supplement the 6-h analysis with outer-loop forecast backgrounds from the next cycle at 1-h intervals from +1 to 5 h after initialization to provide a seamless global time series of 1-h resolution. b. System components 1) Forecast model Hogan et al. (2014) provide detailed descriptions of the operational configuration of the forecast model, which is

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Sonja Gisinger, Andreas Dörnbrack, Vivien Matthias, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Benedikt Ehard, Lars Hoffmann, Bernd Kaifler, Christopher G. Kruse, and Markus Rapp

. Data sources Operational analyses of the Integrated Forecast System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) are used to provide meteorological data to characterize the atmospheric situation. The 6-hourly operational analysis and hourly forecast fields of the IFS cycle 40r1 have a horizontal resolution on the reduced linear Gaussian grid of about 16 km (T L 1279) and 137 vertical model levels (L137) from the ground to ~80 km (0.01 hPa) with layer thicknesses gradually

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Stephen D. Eckermann, Dave Broutman, Jun Ma, James D. Doyle, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Michael J. Taylor, Katrina Bossert, Bifford P. Williams, David C. Fritts, and Ronald B. Smith

-altitude configuration of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM). This system and its DEEPWAVE reanalysis products are the subject of a separate paper (Eckermann et al. 2016a, unpublished manuscript), and so only a brief overview relevant to the current study is provided here. NAVGEM is the U.S. Navy’s operational global NWP system, comprising a forecast model based on a 3-time-level semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian discretization of the fluid equations on the sphere, coupled to a four-dimensional variational (4

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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

shown in Fig. 1 (bottom). Figure 2 shows the extent of all DEEPWAVE measurements in altitude and latitude. F ig . 2. North–south cross section showing the types of airborne and ground-based instruments contributing to DEEPWAVE measurements and their coverage in latitude and altitude. DEEPWAVE began with a test flight-planning exercise from 1 to 10 August 2013 to gain experience with forecasting and flight planning and to assess the reliability of such forecasts in preparation for the real field

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Benedikt Ehard, Peggy Achtert, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Jörg Gumbel, Mikhail Khaplanov, Markus Rapp, and Johannes Wagner

altitude range, the lidar observations are complemented with temperatures simulated numerically by the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (ARW; Skamarock and Klemp 2008 ). Our goal is to determine the wave characteristics from the lower troposphere to the mesosphere. For this purpose, we combine and analyze the lidar temperature measurements and the validated mesoscale simulation results. Prerequisites of this approach are high-resolution numerical

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Ronald B. Smith and Christopher G. Kruse

of aircraft data ( Smith et al. 2016 ; Smith and Kruse 2017 ) and a well validated set of high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulations ( Kruse et al. 2016 ). These resources allow us to propose and test a new hypothesis regarding wave drag on complex terrain. 3. Describing New Zealand’s terrain a. Volume and variance To analyze the South Island of New Zealand, we use the standard global 30-arc-s elevation (GTOPO30) (~1-km terrain) dataset transformed to a local

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Tanja C. Portele, Andreas Dörnbrack, Johannes S. Wagner, Sonja Gisinger, Benedikt Ehard, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, and Markus Rapp

levels, and a model top at 0.01 hPa, with numerical damping starting at 10 hPa ( Jablonowski and Williamson 2011 ). Moreover, mesoscale numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; 1 Skamarock et al. 2008 ; Skamarock and Klemp 2008 ) Model are performed. With the use of Advanced Research WRF version 3.7, atmospheric simulations are generated processing operational ECMWF analyses as initial and boundary conditions. Two nested model domains are centered at 43°S, 169°E over

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Qingfang Jiang, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, and Bifford P. Williams

; Doyle et al. 2011 ) were applied to the DEEPWAVE study area to provide real-time forecast guidance during the field campaign period ( Fritts et al. 2016 ). COAMPS is a fully compressible, nonhydrostatic terrain-following mesoscale model. The finite-difference schemes are of second-order accuracy in time and space in this application. The boundary layer and free-atmospheric turbulent mixing and diffusion are represented using a prognostic equation for the turbulence kinetic energy budget following

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Christopher G. Kruse, Ronald B. Smith, and Stephen D. Eckermann

increasing orographic GWD significantly reduces the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex primarily by altering planetary Rossby wave propagation and drag. This result suggests that increasing parameterized orographic GWD in chemistry–climate models might reduce the cold-pole problem in free-running climate simulations. In this paper, the vertical propagation and attenuation of New Zealand mountain waves are studied using deep Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulations with realistic

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