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J. N. Moum, D. R. Caldwell, J. D. Nash, and G. D. Gunderson

the bottom and spread along isopycnals to the interior. The steplike structure caused by intermittently mixed and detached layers would be lost in time by interleaving and gentle interior vertical mixing. These layers have been found away from boundaries ( Pak et al. 1980b ) and in deep water off the continental slope ( Thorpe and White 1988 ). Direct observations of boundary mixing to date have been made using vertical profilers, which provide excellent vertical resolution of properties in the

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Edgar L. Andreas

. Spray droplets are the source of the local marine aerosol. Any modeling of that aerosol therefore requires a sea spray generation function (e.g., Fairall et al. 1983 ; Fairall and Larsen 1984 ; Burk 1984 ; Stramska 1987 ). In turn, because the aerosol dictates the optical properties of the marine boundary layer, the spray generation function is also crucial to studies of marine scattering and extinction (e.g., Fairall et al. 1982 ; Gathman 1983 ; de Leeuw 1989 ; Hoppel et al. 1989 ; Gathman

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Luc Lenain, Nicholas M. Statom, and W. Kendall Melville

coast of Maui, Hawaii, to estimate surface slope probability density functions (pdfs). Their empirical approach consisted of fitting their optical measurements of sun-glitter patterns to a Gram–Charlier series and relating their statistics to in situ measurements of wind speed collected from the 58-ft-long (1 ft = 30.5 cm) schooner Reverie , positioned at the experiment site. This work found renewed interest several decades later with the development of scatterometers and microwave radars that were

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Elina Tragou, Chris Garrett, Richard Outerbridge, and Craig Gilman

et al. (1994) at the Department of Geoscience of the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee (henceforth referred to as UWM/COADS), and currently accepted bulk formulas. We find a total net surface heat input, significantly higher than the original estimate of BCG, rather than a loss. We suggest that possible explanations for this discrepancy include the role of regionally high aerosol concentration in attenuating the solar irradiance, and we explore this using optical thickness data from satellites

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Curtis D. Mobley and Rudolph W. Preisendorfer

): values cited in the comments range* Deceased.from 0.22 to 0.6. Thus, we felt it beyond the scope ofour paper to discuss the effects of whitecaps in anydetail. We reiterate that there are still other physical processes which can affect the albedos, but which are notconsidered in our surface study. In particular, the optical properties of the water body itself can alter thealbedo r_ (water) by perhaps as much as 10% as wenoted in our section 10. In optically shallow water (e.g.,nearshore coastal

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Clayton A. Paulson and James J. Simpson

length. Upward irradiance, dueto backscattering, ranges from about 0.3 to 3% ofdownward irradiance and is neglected in the presentcontext. We assume that optical properties of theupper ocean are independent of depth--a reasonableapproximation in the surface mixed layer. The assumption of an exponential decay with depthis a poor approximation in the upper 5 m of the oceanbecause of the preferential absorption of the short- andlong-wavelength components of sunlight. Below 10 mdepth, however, the

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André Morel and David Antoine

(the chlorophyll-like pigment content). It rests on thevariations in ocean transparency, as they have beenobserved, without attempting to relate these variationsto their very causes, namely, to the presence of pigmented biological materials. Phytoplankton, with theirretinue, actually play the dominant role in determiningthe optical properties of oceanic case 1 waters (Moreland Prieur 1977). Note that the oceanic optical watertypes (from I to III), as defined by Jefiov, are all included in oceanic case 1 waters

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Grant B. Deane and M. Dale Stokes

. Some of the more celebrated studies of resident bubble populations are those of Medwin (1977) , Johnson and Cooke (1979) , and Kolovayev (1976) . Because of the difficulties of making measurements in alpha plumes, which are transient and optically and acoustically opaque, there are few published quantitative studies of their properties. Monahan (1993) has inferred spatially averaged, near-surface bubble size distributions beneath white caps from a sea surface aerosol generation model. Studies

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F. M. Monaldo and R. S. Kasevich

the sea surface byoptical Fourier analysis. The development of coherent optical processing techniques has made theanalysis of photographic negatives a practicalmethod of deducing the spectral properties of wavesand their directional characteristics. Optical Fourieranalysis of the film-amplitude transmittance performs exactly and very rapidly a mathematicaltransformation which is otherwise lengthy andsomewhat difficult (Goodman, 1968). It is also possible to image ocean waves using a

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J. Carter Ohlmann, David A. Siegel, and Curtis D. Mobley

wind speed. These sea surface radiance transfer functions are the foundation of the surface boundary condition needed by HYDROLIGHT ( Mobley 1994 ). Simulations of 20 000 photons for each directional quad (9.6 × 10 6 photons total) were used to determine the radiance reflectance distribution for a given incident direction as a function of wind speed. For the bottom boundary, an infinitely thick homogeneous layer of water with the same optical properties as water at the maximum depth of interest is

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