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Matthew R. Mazloff, Raffaele Ferrari, and Tapio Schneider

do not apply. Held and Schneider (1999) , Schneider et al. (2003) , and Schneider (2005) showed that nonquasigeostrophic effects at the boundaries (specifically, relatively large isopycnal slopes) modify the overall residual circulation of the atmosphere. Similar issues may arise in the ocean. Plumb and Ferrari (2005) extended the planetary geostrophic system in (1) – (4) to account for nonquasigeostrophic effects. However, their momentum and buoyancy equations involve terms that are

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J. R. Ledwell, L. C. St. Laurent, J. B. Girton, and J. M. Toole

.75 ± 0.07) × 10 −5 m 2 s −1 , where Γ is the mixing efficiency parameter, taken to be 0.2 [see, e.g., Oakey (1982) and St. Laurent and Schmitt (1999) for justification of this choice], and 〈 N   2 〉 is the average buoyancy gradient over the tracer patch. The area-averaged dissipation profile for the tracer survey region (averages done on pressure surfaces) decreased roughly monotonically with depth below the surface layers that are directly forced by the atmosphere ( Fig. 3a ). The

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Michael Bates, Ross Tulloch, John Marshall, and Raffaele Ferrari

atmosphere. However, such effects are also likely to be significant in other regions where eddies and jets coexist, such as western boundary currents and equatorial regions. We now briefly review key elements of “mixing theory” in which waves moving zonally with phase speed c along a mean zonal flow induce fluid parcels to move transverse to the mean flow, thus transferring properties in the cross-stream direction. We then go on to assess whether these effects can account for some of the differences

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