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Danny E. Scipión, Phillip B. Chilson, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Robert D. Palmer

of the lower atmosphere is the boundary layer radar (BLR). The term BLR is generally applied to a class of pulsed Doppler radar that transmits radio waves vertically, or nearly vertically, and receives Bragg backscattered signals from refractive index fluctuations of the optically clear atmosphere. The operating frequency of this type of radar is typically near 1 GHz. Therefore, the Bragg scale is such that BLRs are sensitive to turbulent structures that have spatial scales near 15 cm. Enhanced

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Rod Frehlich, Yannick Meillier, and Michael L. Jensen

Tethered Lifting System (TLS) was developed for the 1999 Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study (CASES-99) field campaign ( Poulos et al. 2002 ) by the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado ( Balsley et al. 1998 , 2003 , 2006 ) and modified for measurements in the open spaces of the Washington, D.C., area ( Frehlich et al. 2006 ) to provide high-resolution in situ profiles of the SBL. High-resolution in situ measurements are able to

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Ronny Engelmann, Ulla Wandinger, Albert Ansmann, Detlef Müller, Egidijus Žeromskis, Dietrich Althausen, and Birgit Wehner

1. Introduction The vertical exchange of sensible heat (temperature), latent heat (moisture), particles, and trace gases between the surface and the lower troposphere has a strong influence on weather and climate and atmospheric composition, as well as on smog and haze conditions at the ground. Vertical exchange depends in a complicated way on surface characteristics and meteorological conditions in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The mechanisms within the PBL and in the entrainment zone

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Laura Bianco, James M. Wilczak, and Allen B. White

1. Introduction The depth of the atmosphere’s turbulent planetary boundary layer (PBL) is well recognized as an important parameter for air quality monitoring and prediction studies, as well as for the evaluation of numerical weather prediction models. One potential method to routinely monitor the dynamically defined PBL depths uses high-resolution wind-profiling radars, as the maximum value of the radar-derived refractive index parameter C 2 n (which usually emerges at the inversion due to

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Daniela Nowak, Dominique Ruffieux, Judith L. Agnew, and Laurent Vuilleumier

information about the meteorological conditions are important for weather forecasters, climate studies, and aviation control. One of the high priority duties of observers is the description of the evolution of clouds, especially within the planetary boundary layer. However, automatic weather reports are becoming important because human observations are becoming more difficult to organize, especially during nighttime ( Aviolat et al. 1998 ). The cloud amount (sky coverage in octas) can be automatically

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V. Bellantone, I. Carofalo, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. Santese, A. M. Tafuro, and A. Turnone

needed. In situ measurements at ground level are the most important for the air quality characterization. These measurements can in principle give complete information because mass, size distribution, chemical composition, and morphology can all be experimentally determined. However, this information is insufficient for the characterization of aerosol interactions with the solar radiation because aerosols in the atmosphere participate to this process (e.g., Tegen et al. 1997 ). Remote sensing tools

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