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Tiffany A. Shaw, Judith Perlwitz, Nili Harnik, Paul A. Newman, and Steven Pawson

final warming events . J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 2968 – 2974 . Charney , J. G. , and P. G. Drazin , 1961 : Propagation of planetary disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere . J. Geophys. Res. , 66 , 83 – 109 . Eyring , V. , and Coauthors , 2006 : Assessment of temperature, trace species, and ozone in chemistry-climate model simulations of the recent past . J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , D22308 , doi:10.1029/2006JD007327 . Fogt , R. L. , J. Perlwitz , S. Pawson , and M

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Franklin R. Robertson and Jason B. Roberts

) determined that top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) fluxes during the convectively active phases of composited intraseasonal events resulted in systematic anomalous net loss of energy to space by the atmosphere–ocean system. Spencer et al. (2007) explored the systematic coupling on intraseasonal time scales between tropical mean deep convection, TOA fluxes, and tropical mean atmospheric temperature variations. They noted the reduction in TOA net radiative fluxes over the global tropical ocean domain following

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J. Brent Roberts, Franklin R. Robertson, Carol A. Clayson, and Michael G. Bosilovich

fluxes in the atmosphere . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 17 , 187 – 202 . Louis , J. F. , M. Tiedtke , and J. Geleyn , 1982 : A short history of the operational PBL parameterization at ECMWF . Proc. Workshop on Planetary Boundary Layer Parameterization, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 59–80 . Moore , G. W. K. , and I. A. Renfrew , 2002 : An assessment of the surface turbulent heat fluxes from the NCEP–NCAR reanalysis over the western boundary currents . J. Climate , 15 , 2020 – 2037

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Brian E. Mapes and Julio T. Bacmeister

1. Introduction There are many ways to learn from the confrontation of an atmosphere model with observations, in service of model improvement. The study of initial tendencies [or errors in one-time-step forecasts, Klinker and Sardeshmukh (1992) ] is appealing because the effect of a model process error is localized. However, initialization shock may dominate the results, making interpretation subtle (e.g., Judd et al. 2008 ). At the other extreme of time scale, the biases of unconstrained

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Michele M. Rienecker, Max J. Suarez, Ronald Gelaro, Ricardo Todling, Julio Bacmeister, Emily Liu, Michael G. Bosilovich, Siegfried D. Schubert, Lawrence Takacs, Gi-Kong Kim, Stephen Bloom, Junye Chen, Douglas Collins, Austin Conaty, Arlindo da Silva, Wei Gu, Joanna Joiner, Randal D. Koster, Robert Lucchesi, Andrea Molod, Tommy Owens, Steven Pawson, Philip Pegion, Christopher R. Redder, Rolf Reichle, Franklin R. Robertson, Albert G. Ruddick, Meta Sienkiewicz, and Jack Woollen

used. The Louis et al. (1982) scheme is used in stable situations with no planetary boundary layer (PBL) clouds, while the Lock et al. (2000) scheme is used for unstable or cloud-topped PBLs. GEOS-5 incorporates both an orographic gravity wave drag scheme based on McFarlane (1987) and a scheme for nonorographic waves based on Garcia and Boville (1994) . The land surface is modeled with the Catchment Land Surface Model ( Koster et al. 2000 ). The grid used for MERRA is ½° latitude × ⅔

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Derek J. Posselt, Andrew R. Jongeward, Chuan-Yuan Hsu, and Gerald L. Potter

representation of a host of Earth system variables, reanalyses have been successfully used in a wide range of weather and climate research activities. The general utility of a reanalysis dataset depends on the fidelity of its representation of the state of the atmosphere, which in turn depends on the data assimilation algorithm, data assimilated, and realism of the numerical model’s physical parameterizations. While most reanalysis efforts produce robust estimates of temperature and horizontal wind

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Benjamin A. Schenkel and Robert E. Hart

in three different basins are found in Figs. 8a – c for EPAC TC Guillermo (1997), NATL TC Katrina (2005), and WPAC TC Orchid (1991), respectively. These discontinuities manifest themselves throughout the atmosphere as demonstrated by a vertical cross section ( Fig. 8d ) corresponding to Fig. 8c . The seemingly systematic nature of these nonphysical structures raises questions as to whether an intercomparison of TC structure among reanalyses would yield similar results to those for track and

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Siegfried Schubert, Hailan Wang, and Max Suarez

1. Introduction The boreal summer extratropical circulation lacks the strong jets and large-amplitude stationary waves that typify the boreal winter climate. This, together with the presence of pervasive tropical easterlies that inhibit remote forcing from the tropics, tends to limit boreal summer middle-latitude variability to more local/regional processes, with mesoscale convective weather systems and land–atmosphere coupling playing important roles (e.g., Parker and Johnson 2000 ; Koster

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, and Chris D. Thorncroft

different time scales and the effects of planetary-scale forcings are investigated. As will be shown, the results do not contradict previous well-established findings on large-scale mechanisms relevant for cyclogenesis but, rather, add a new piece of information on the role of jet instability that may have implications for seasonal and subseasonal time-scale prediction capabilities. The idea that some increase in tropical cyclone prediction skill, over the Pacific and Indian Oceans and on a subseasonal

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