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Guido Vettoretti, Marc d’Orgeville, William R. Peltier, and Marek Stastna

appears to move westward during DJF and eastward during JJA. The respective seasonal shifts result in westerly wind anomalies in the western Pacific in JJA and may impact the strength of ENSO during this adjustment. An ocean–atmosphere–ocean “bridge” in which the Northern Hemisphere cooling that is experienced during the reduction in AMOC is zonally propagated across the Northern Hemisphere through the action of the westerlies and by anomalous stationary planetary wave forcing in boreal winter (DJF

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M. Eby, K. Zickfeld, A. Montenegro, D. Archer, K. J. Meissner, and A. J. Weaver

1. Introduction The projection of the climatic consequences of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions for the twenty-first century has been a major topic of climate research. Nevertheless, the long-term consequences of anthropogenic CO 2 remain highly uncertain. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) reported that “about 50% of a CO 2 increase will be removed from the atmosphere within 30 years and a further 30% will be removed within a few centuries

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Michael S. Pritchard, Andrew B. G. Bush, and Shawn J. Marshall

in the ocean (e.g., Goosse and Renssen 2004 ), in the coupled atmosphere–ocean system (e.g., An and Wang 2005 ; van der Avoird et al. 2002 ; Schneider and Comuelle 2005 ; Newman et al. 2003 ), and in solid earth systems (e.g., Berger and von Rad 2005 ). It has become apparent from such studies that the influence of higher frequency processes on low-frequency climate variability is often not well represented stochastically. Rather, the well-defined spatial and temporal patterns of higher

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