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Maik Renner, Axel Kleidon, Martyn Clark, Bart Nijssen, Marvin Heidkamp, Martin Best, and Gab Abramowitz

; Maronga and Reuder 2017 ), and (iv) the planetary boundary layer ( Baklanov et al. 2011 ). These subgrid-scale parameterizations are critical for accurate simulation of the surface climate ( Baklanov et al. 2011 ; Heidkamp et al. 2018 ), including heat and mass exchange with atmosphere. Therefore, an evaluation of the diurnal phase lag of simulated turbulent heat fluxes can identify important model deficiencies and point toward improvements. c. Research questions and design Here we aim to assess the

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Xianan Jiang, Ángel F. Adames, Ming Zhao, Duane Waliser, and Eric Maloney

1. Introduction One of the most prominent modes of variability in the earth’s atmosphere, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), remains poorly represented in present-day climate and weather forecast models ( Neena et al. 2014 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ; Neena et al. 2017 ; Ahn et al. 2017 ), greatly limiting our capability to conduct short-term climate prediction of extreme weather activity. The grand challenge in modeling the MJO is largely due to our limited understanding of essential processes

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Ángel F. Adames and Yi Ming

our analysis to the boreal summer months of June–September (JJAS). The following AM4.0 fields are used in this study: the horizontal winds u and υ , geopotential height Z , specific humidity q , precipitation P , dry static energy s , frozen moist static energy h , surface and top of the atmosphere shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes, and surface sensible H and latent heat fluxes E . In addition to daily data from AM4.0, two other datasets are used in this study. We make

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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

. Atmos. Sci. , 66 , 1665 – 1683 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JAS2806.1 . 10.1175/2008JAS2806.1 Horel , J. , and J. M. Wallace , 1981 : Planetary-scale atmospheric phenomena associated with the Southern Oscillation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 109 , 813 – 828 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1981)109<0813:PSAPAW>2.0.CO;2 Hoskins , B. J. , and D. Karoly , 1981 : The steady linear response of a spherical atmosphere to thermal and orographic

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Jiabao Wang, Hyemi Kim, Daehyun Kim, Stephanie A. Henderson, Cristiana Stan, and Eric D. Maloney

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is the dominant mode of tropical intraseasonal variability. It is characterized by a convection–circulation coupled system propagating eastward from the Indian Ocean to the Pacific with periods ranging from approximately 30 to 60 days. The MJO modulates atmospheric (e.g., tropical cyclones), oceanic (e.g., chlorophyll), and ocean–atmosphere coupled [e.g., El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)] disturbances

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