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T. N. Krishnamurti, Arindam Chakraborty, and A. K. Mishra

authors ( Slingo et al. 1996 ; Waliser et al. 2003 ; Zhang 2005 ; Zhang et al. 2006 ). Having observed estimates of heating rates is fairly important for model validations. In a series of papers, Shige et al. (2004 , 2007 , 2008) have examined the vertical profiles of heating in tropical weather systems. Their studies have shown the limitations in the modeling of the vertical distribution of heating from case studies that covered Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere

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Manuel D. Zuluaga, Carlos D. Hoyos, and Peter J. Webster

1. Introduction The release of latent heat in the tropical atmosphere accounts for approximately 75% of the total heating in the earth’s atmosphere (e.g., Riehl and Malkus 1958 ; Malkus 1962 ; Riehl and Simpson 1979 ). Tropical latent heating (LH) plays a major role in driving and modulating tropical and extratropical weather across all spatial and temporal scales from meso- and synoptic to planetary scales (e.g., Matsuno 1966 ; Webster 1972 ; Gill 1980 ; Hartmann et al. 1984 ; Mapes

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

latent heat and the atmospheric circulation in the free atmosphere, in the planetary boundary layer (PBL), and at oceanic surface are fundamental to the wave-conditional instability of the second kind (CISK; Lau and Peng 1987 ), Ekman-CISK ( Wang and Rui 1990 ; Hendon and Salby 1994 ), and wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE; Emanuel 1987 ; Neelin et al. 1987 ) hypotheses to explain the growth rate and phase speed of the MJO. It is suggested that the slow propagation of the MJO could be

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

in the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE; Webster and Lukas 1992 ). For convective and shallow stratiform regions, the LUT is based on the PTH. Considering the sensitivity of the PR, we used a threshold of 0.3 mm h −1 to determine the PTH. Properties (i.e., shape and magnitude) of the convective and shallow stratiform heating profiles show near-monotonic change with the PTH, suggesting that the distribution of latent heating is a

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