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Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosović, Scott W. McIntosh, Fei Chen, Kathleen Miller, Marshall Shepherd, Marcus Williams, and Sheldon Drobot

sectors, and their sensitivity to climate variability, it is important to develop a clear understanding of nature and dynamics of the FEW nexus. Multidisciplinary and multistakeholder collaboration will be needed to foster that understanding. 3. Applications in space weather We live in the atmosphere of our star, the sun. “Space weather” is the term used to describe the relentless barrage of particles that bathe Earth and other planetary bodies of the solar system that originate in the steady

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Isaac M. Held

planetary atmospheres Much recent work on the general circulation can be described as trying to place the structure of Earth’s atmosphere in the context of other possible atmospheres, either idealized or realized in our solar system or, possibly, on extrasolar planets. An early work on classifying planetary atmospheres using dimensional analysis was Golitsyn (1970) , focusing in particular on the key role of a thermal Rossby number. Recent discussions of the effects of a wide set of parameter

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Boualem Khouider and Andrew J. Majda

1. Introduction Convection in the tropics is organized on a hierarchy of scales ranging from the convective cell of a few kilometers to planetary-scale disturbances such as the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) ( Nakazawa 1974 ). Cloud clusters and superclusters occur on the meso- and synoptic scales and often appear embedded in each other and within the MJO envelope. Analysis of outgoing longwave radiation cross correlated with the reanalysis products helped identify the synoptic

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Larry K. Berg and Peter J. Lamb

1. Setting the research agenda It is well known that the exchange of heat and moisture between the surface and atmosphere plays a key role in the earth’s climate system (e.g., Randall et al. 2007 ). Science questions related to land–atmosphere interactions have remained an active topic of research, both inside and outside of the ARM Program, for a considerable period of time (e.g., Betts et al. 1996 ; Betts 2003 , 2004 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2006 ; Betts 2009 ; Santanello et al. 2009 ; Betts

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Mark P. Baldwin, Thomas Birner, Guy Brasseur, John Burrows, Neal Butchart, Rolando Garcia, Marvin Geller, Lesley Gray, Kevin Hamilton, Nili Harnik, Michaela I. Hegglin, Ulrike Langematz, Alan Robock, Kaoru Sato, and Adam A. Scaife

stable stratification, and Rossby waves (see section 5 ), for which a combination of differential planetary rotation and stratification provides the restoring force. On spatial scales larger than a few hundred kilometers, gravity waves are modified by Earth’s rotation and are known as inertia–gravity waves. A third type of wave is the atmospheric Kelvin wave, which is analogous to coastal Kelvin waves in the ocean. It exists in the atmosphere because of the change in sign of the Coriolis parameter

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David A. Randall, Cecilia M. Bitz, Gokhan Danabasoglu, A. Scott Denning, Peter R. Gent, Andrew Gettelman, Stephen M. Griffies, Peter Lynch, Hugh Morrison, Robert Pincus, and John Thuburn

exchange energy with the rest of the universe, and because motions of the atmosphere are fundamentally driven by spatial gradients in the electromagnetic radiation emitted by Earth, its atmosphere, and the sun. The same gradients also play a key role in determining the thermal structure of the atmosphere. The deep convective clouds of the tropics arise from a rough balance between destabilization by radiative cooling and the response of deep convection, for example, while the planetary-scale Hadley

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T. N. Krishnamurti, Ruby Krishnamurti, Anu Simon, Aype Thomas, and Vinay Kumar

larger-scale MJO envelope wave, propagate from east to west with typical speeds on the order of 5° to 7° longitude per day whereas the MJO moves eastward around the globe (360°) in around 40 days. This disparity in space–time scales of the clouds and mesoscales embedded in synoptic scales and the planetary-scale MJO makes it an interesting problem for scale interactions. Basically the important question we raise here is how clouds whose scale is of the order of a few kilometers communicate with the

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David S. Battisti, Daniel J. Vimont, and Benjamin P. Kirtman

1. Introduction There was little discussion of coupled atmosphere–ocean variability in the first two-thirds of the twentieth century. In an early study, Sir Gilbert Walker analyzed station data around the world and coined the term “Southern Oscillation” for a large-scale coherent oscillation in sea level pressure and in precipitation in the Maritime Continent ( Walker 1924 ). 1 Decades later, Berlage (1966) linked the Southern Oscillation to episodic, localized warming off Peru and Ecuador

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Greg M. McFarquhar and Robert M. Rauber

sequential manner, we have tried to do this as logically as possible. The first chapter summarizes the role of AMS in supporting the scientific community over the 100 years of its existence ( Seitter et al. 2019 ). Thereafter, because the atmospheric and related sciences are primarily observationally driven, the next chapters summarize the systems that have been used to observe the atmosphere and the ocean, both through conventional and in situ techniques ( Stith et al. 2019 ; Davis et al. 2019 ) and

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Andrew J. Majda and Samuel N. Stechmann

1. Introduction In this chapter, the multiscale hierarchy of organized convection will be divided into three broad categories: (i) the MJO on planetary spatial scales (roughly 20 000 km) and intraseasonal time scales (roughly 40 days) ( Lau and Waliser 2005 ; Zhang 2005 ), (ii) convectively coupled equatorial waves (CCW) on equatorial synoptic scales (roughly 2000 km and 4 days) ( Kiladis et al. 2009 ), and (iii) MCS on mesoscales (roughly 200 km and 0.4 days) ( Houze 2004 ). This hierarchy

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