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Serguei Sokolov and Stephen R. Rintoul

1. Introduction For geophysical flows of sufficient spatial scale, the meridional gradient of planetary vorticity (the β effect) provides a restoring force that helps to organize the flow into persistent, narrow zonal jets ( Rhines 1975 ). Well-known examples include the jets on Jupiter and the outer planets and the jet streams in the earth’s atmosphere. Oceanic flows also fall in a parameter range conducive to the formation of zonal jets, although the presence of land boundaries has been

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

equation of state). Global sea level rises when the absolute mass of the ocean water is increased (eustatic sources), through variations of the global mean salinity (which depends on eustatic sources, with the exception of melting sea ice), or when the specific volume is modified through net heating or cooling. The ocean heat content would change as a result of a planetary energy imbalance ( Levitus et al. 2000 ). The issue of global sea level rise has received considerable attention in the last decade

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

products of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR; Kalnay et al. 1996 ) (approximately 2° spatial resolution), except that the time means, computed between 1993 and 1996, are replaced by the corresponding climatological products of the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS; da Silva et al. 1994 ). Additionally, model sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) are relaxed toward the NCEP–NCAR SST analysis and

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