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A L. Hirsch, A. J. Pitman, J. Kala, R. Lorenz, and M. G. Donat

evapotranspiration ( Fischer et al. 2007 ; Lorenz et al. 2010 ; Jaeger and Seneviratne 2011 ; Zhang and Wu 2011 ; Mueller and Seneviratne 2012 ; Roundy et al. 2014 ). LUC modifies the biophysical characteristics of the land surface, the surface energy balance ( Boisier et al. 2012 ), and how the land connects to the boundary layer. In Australia, LUC is most commonly associated with a change from native forest to grasslands and crops and is known through observations to affect the atmosphere. Early studies

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Shaoping Chu, Scott Elliott, Mathew Maltrud, Jose Hernandez, and David Erickson

1. Introduction Among trace molecules influencing global change in the anthropocene atmosphere, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is comparable in relevance to the major greenhouse gases ( Houghton et al., 1996 ). It is produced by phytoplankton in large quantities, likely as a by-product of osmoregulatory and cryoprotection metabolics ( Kettle et al., 1999 ). Subsequent transfer into the marine troposphere determines aerosol sulfate concentrations and numbers of condensation nuclei available for the

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Arindam Samanta, Bruce T. Anderson, Sangram Ganguly, Yuri Knyazikhin, Ramakrishna R. Nemani, and Ranga B. Myneni

their impacts ( Parry et al. 2007 ). To explicitly examine the response of the climate system to decreasing GHG concentrations, we performed a simple set of experiments with a coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model (GCM), in which the carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations were increased from 350 to 700 ppmv (parts per million by volume) and then decreased back to 350 ppmv ( Figure 1a ). The 350-ppmv CO 2 concentration is the desired stabilization level ( Hansen et al. 2008 ) and

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Christine Wiedinmyer, Michael Barlage, Mukul Tewari, and Fei Chen

al. 2005 ; Amiro et al. 2006 ; Randerson et al. 2006 ; Myhre et al. 2005 ). The importance of these impacts is highlighted by Running ( Running 2008 ), who emphasizes the need to include land-cover disturbances, such as fire and forest dieback, in climate models to adequately account for changes in surface characteristics and carbon fluxes. The modification of physical land surface properties by disturbances can alter the surface–atmosphere exchanges of heat, water, and momentum and ultimately

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Peter K. Snyder

influence how vegetation and soils exchange water, energy, and momentum with the atmosphere through complex biophysical processes ( Foley et al. 2003 ). The resulting changes in the surface energy, water, and momentum balance can affect the thermodynamics and circulation of the atmosphere, thereby altering climate patterns. Such changes in the land surface may strongly affect local and regional climate, but perhaps also the climate of distant locations by atmospheric teleconnections. Although

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Gian Villamil-Otero, Ryan Meiszberg, Jennifer S. Haase, Ki-Hong Min, Mark R. Jury, and John J. Braun

temperature, and H is the mountain height (~600 m). For F < 1 easterly flow should deflect around the island, for F > 1 flow passes over the island, and for F = 1 flow generates standing waves. The SBI and Froude number for each day are shown in Table 2 . Table 2. Sea-breeze index, Froude number, and other environmental variables for each day. Ground-based GPS stations have been used to measure moisture in the atmosphere ( Rocken et al. 1995 ; Businger et al. 1996 ; Haase et al. 2003 ). GPS

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Jesse Winchester, Rezaul Mahmood, William Rodgers, Faisal Hossain, Eric Rappin, Joshua Durkee, and Themis Chronis

extending from the southwest to northeast traversing the LBL area and closely coinciding with the precipitation bands. As expected, local θ e was up to 15 K higher than CTRL. However, these increases were not as widespread as those for the surface and 850-mb levels. 3.1.5. Planetary boundary layer height The PBL height indicates strength of vertical mixing in the atmosphere and plays an important role in the development of convection and subsequent precipitation. PBL heights typically increase during

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Patricia M. Lawston, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Brian Hanson, and Kristi Arsensault

1. Introduction Irrigation has the potential to modify local weather and regional climate through a repartitioning of water among the surface, soil, and atmosphere with the potential to drastically change the terrestrial energy budget in agricultural areas ( Qian et al. 2013 ). Vegetation cover and soil moisture primarily control water and energy fluxes from the surface into the planetary boundary layer (PBL), providing a pathway for irrigation to affect PBL growth and entrainment, and

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Lei Meng and Yanjun Shen

1. Introduction Interactions between soil moisture (SM) and climate have received much attention because of their potential for improving long-term and large-scale climate prediction. SM is an important component in the climate system and its variation can affect water and energy exchange between the surface and the boundary layer of the atmosphere ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ). Previous research has shown that SM anomalies can have substantial impacts on precipitation in the transitional region

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Sébastien Gervois, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudré, Nicolas Viovy, Philippe Ciais, Nadine Brisson, Bernard Seguin, and Alain Perrier

dioxide occurring when pristine forests are being replaced by crops, the role of croplands (supply of carbon to or removal from the atmosphere) is yet highly uncertain and depends on the management mode ( Smith et al. 2000 ). Vleeshouwers and Verhagen ( Vleeshouwers and Verhagen 2002 ) showed that European croplands act as a carbon source of about 0.84 TC ha −1 yr −1 but with very large uncertainties ( Janssens et al. 2003 ). This is in agreement with more and more evidence of lower soil carbon

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