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Ronnie Leeper, Rezaul Mahmood, and Arturo I. Quintanar

. , Leeper R. , and Quintanar A. I. , 2011 : Sensitivity of planetary boundary layer atmosphere to historical and future changes of land use/land cover, vegetation fraction, and soil moisture in western Kentucky, USA . Global Planet. Change , 78 , 36 – 53 , doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2011.05.007 . McCumber, M. C. , and Pielke R. A. , 1981 : Simulation of the effects of surface fluxes of heat and moisture in a mesoscale numerical model . J. Geophys. Res. , 86 , 9929 – 9938 . McPherson, R. A

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Mary M. Forrester and Reed M. Maxwell

-dimensional thermal and kinetic energy and moisture flux in the atmosphere. In all models, the Thompson et al. (2008) bulk microphysics scheme was used for simulated formation of cloud droplets and precipitation fallout. Longwave and shortwave radiation were represented by the Rapid Radiative Transfer Model ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ) and the Dudhia scheme ( Dudhia 1989 ), respectively. Finally, the Yonsei University (YSU) scheme was used for planetary boundary layer dynamics ( Hong et al. 2006 ). Land surface

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William Rudisill, Alejandro Flores, and James McNamara

. 2015 ). We use the Monin–Obukhov similarity theory surface layer scheme, the Community Atmosphere Model shortwave and longwave radiation schemes, the Mellor–Yamada–Janjić TKE planetary boundary layer scheme, Thompson microphysics, and the Noah-MP land surface model ( Table 1 ). The Noah-MP land surface model ( Niu et al. 2011 ) uses a three-layer mass and energy balance snow model that accounts for melt, refreeze, and liquid water storage within the snowpack. The shortwave radiation calculation

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Timothy M. Lahmers, Christopher L. Castro, and Pieter Hazenberg

1. Introduction Evidence of feedback between the lower atmosphere and the land surface, particularly in arid and semiarid environments, has been shown from analysis of near-surface fluxes and planetary boundary layer (PBL) characteristics in both modeling and observation studies (e.g., Findell and Eltahir 1997 ; Koster et al. 2002 ; Dirmeyer et al. 2009 ; Zeng et al. 2010 ; Santanello et al. 2018 ). The recent development of coupled mesoscale atmospheric and distributed hydrologic modeling

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Marouane Temimi, Ricardo Fonseca, Narendra Nelli, Michael Weston, Mohan Thota, Vineeth Valappil, Oliver Branch, Hans-Dieter Wizemann, Niranjan Kumar Kondapalli, Youssef Wehbe, Taha Al Hosary, Abdeltawab Shalaby, Noor Al Shamsi, and Hajer Al Naqbi

’s physical properties, and hence their representation in numerical models is very important for an accurate simulation of the surface and near-surface fields. An accurate modeling of land–atmosphere interactions strongly depends on how accurate the surface properties, in particular the predominant soil texture and LULC, are represented in the model. Göndöcs et al. (2015) investigated the sensitivity of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF; Skamarock et al. 2008 ) Model’s response to a more

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Eli J. Dennis and Ernesto Hugo Berbery

-to-annual time scales ( Dirmeyer 2011 ; Roundy and Wood 2015 ), and extending into climate scales ( Seneviratne et al. 2010 ; Koster et al. 2006 ). Soil moisture affects the partitioning of surface fluxes that control the vertical stability of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Land surface–atmosphere coupling also depends on the spatial extent of a phenomenon, ranging from local scales ( Santanello et al. 2018 ) to basin scales ( Betts 2009 ; Weaver 2004 ; Ferguson et al. 2012 ). In certain synoptic

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Jinwoong Yoo, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Marshall Shepherd, Sujay Kumar, Patricia Lawston, and Andrew M. Thomas

scheme ( Matsui et al. 2018 ). Turbulent closure is computed using level 2 of the Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino (MYNN) model ( Nakanishi and Niino 2004 , 2006 , 2009 ) in which vertical mixing is parameterized to interact with both planetary boundary layer (PBL) and free atmosphere ( Noda et al. 2010 ; Ohno et al. 2016 ). For the WRF tropical suite, on the other hand, cloud microphysics are computed using the WSM6 scheme which solves for six categories of hydrometeor: water vapor, cloud water

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Lingjing Zhu, Jiming Jin, and Yimin Liu

simulations: Dudhia shortwave radiation ( Dudhia 1989 ), Rapid Radiative Transfer Model longwave radiation ( Mlawer et al. 1997 ), Community Atmosphere Model 5.1 microphysics ( Neale et al. 2010 ), Kain–Fritsch cumulus ( Kain 2004 ), University of Washington planetary boundary layer ( Bretherton and Park 2009 ), and CLM 4.0. With this combination, we further calibrated the WRF Model with LST observations for the TP lakes. The eddy diffusivity scheme from the CLM 5.0 was introduced to WRF to better

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Kshitij Parajuli, Scott B. Jones, David G. Tarboton, Lawrence E. Hipps, Lin Zhao, Morteza Sadeghi, Mark L. Rockhold, Alfonso Torres-Rua, and Gerald N. Flerchinger

1. Introduction Land surface models (LSMs) have been used widely in studying interactions within the soil, vegetation and atmosphere continuum, in addition to predicting water and energy fluxes. Improved understanding of land–atmosphere interactions potentially enhances the ability of weather and climate models to predict future conditions ( Barlage et al. 2015 ; Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Gao et al. 2015 ; Kumar et al. 2014 ; Sadeghi et al. 2019 ). Detailed land–atmosphere processes and

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E. J. Barton, C. M. Taylor, C. Klein, P. P. Harris, and X. Meng

authors commented that further work was needed to assess sensitivity to sub-plateau-scale surface wetness patterns. The impact of soil moisture (SM) on moist convection has been recognized by numerous works (e.g., see reviews by Seneviratne et al. 2010 ; Santanello et al. 2018 ). SM affects the partitioning of surface fluxes into sensible and latent heat, which control planetary boundary layer (PBL) growth and moisture availability, respectively. Depending on the atmospheric stability profile

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