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Mirko Orlić

surface; the ratio of their amplitudes is the same as the one between(sea surface) air density and density of the sea. Departures from this simple relationship result from thebaroclinic atmospheric disturbances that occasionally influence the sea in the frequency band correspondingto planetary atmospheric waves.1. Introduction The influence of the atmosphere on sea level canbe investigated from two points of view. On one hand,it is interesting to analyze the way atmospheric factors(air pressure

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Miles G. McPhee and J. Dungan Smith

the proper coordinate transformation, the planetary boundary layer of the ocean resembles that ofthe atmosphere. Composite averages of non-dimensional Reynolds stress and mean flow in the ocean, whencompared with recent models of a neutrally buoyant, horizontally homogeneous atmosphere, fit the modelpredictions fairly well. However, the lateral component (perpendicular to surface stress) departed markedlyfrom those predictions, indicating that form drag associated with pressure ridge keels is

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Richard G. Williams, Chris Wilson, and Chris W. Hughes

forcing acts to assist the separation process where the boundary current moves offshore. 5) Relative importance of eddy forcing In the atmosphere, the vorticity balance in (10) for large-scale flow generally involves a balance between advection by the mean flow of relative and planetary vorticity ( Lau 1979 ), which tend to partially cancel each other, with a significant remainder due to divergence, and a smaller contribution from the eddy term. In the Southern Ocean, there is a similar first

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Nathan Paldor, Shira Rubin, and Arthur J. Mariano

traditionally into two categories: The first is high-frequency waves (Kelvin waves and inertia–gravity, or Poincaré, waves), which represent rotationally modified gravity waves of the nonrotating SWE; the second type is the low-frequency planetary (Rossby) waves that originate from the dependence of Coriolis frequency on latitude, f  ( y ). The derivation of the former type in the context of the SWE is done straightforwardly on the f plane, where f  ( y ) is replaced by a constant f 0 . In contrast

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Warren B. White and Jeffrey L. Annis

, 1179 – 1189 . Dewar , W. K. , 1998 : On “too fast’ baroclinic planetary waves in the general circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 28 , 1739 – 1758 . Goodman , J. , and J. Marshall , 1999 : A model of decadal middle latitude atmosphere–ocean coupled modes. J. Climate , 12 , 621 – 641 . Kalnay , E. , and Coauthors , 1996 : The NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc , 77 , 437 – 471 . Kang , Y. Q. , and L. Magaard , 1980 : Annual baroclinic Rossby

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Rui M. Ponte and Richard D. Rosen

-resolving model of Semtner and Chervin. Seasonal variability in M is dominated by the annualcycle, whose magnitude appears capable of helping explain the residual in the solid earth-atmosphere annualmomentum budget. Planetary (Ms) and relative (Mr) ocean angular momentum components have comparableseasonal amplitudes. Most of the mean signal in Mr results from flows in the Antarctic Circumpolar Currentregion, but flows as far north as approximately 30-S are needed to explain the seasonal cycle. Locally

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Stefan Hastenrath

measurements of net radiation at the top of the atmosphere. Annual mean heat exportfrom the zone 30-N-30-S amounts to -101 x 10~4 W (= 100 units). Of this iotal 39 and 61 units are per'formed within the oceanic water body and the atmospheric column over sea and land, respectively. In thezone 0-10-N, to which the planetary cloud band (ITCZ) is essentially limited throughout the year, atmospheric heat export reaches only 13 units, as compared to an oceanic export of 18 units from the zone0-10-S. In

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Warren B. White, Shyh-Chin Chen, and Ray G. Peterson

planetary vorticity (i.e., C PX ∂ h /∂ x ) by more than an order of magnitude. Therefore, Eq. (3.1) reduces to the expression for Ekman pumping; that is, ∂ h /∂ t = (∂ τ X /∂ y )/ f, (3.2) where ∂ τ X /∂ y also dominates ∂ τ Y /∂ x in curl( τ ) = (∂ τ Y /∂ x − ∂ τ X /∂ y ), with τ X and τ Y zonal and meridional components, respectively, of the anomalous surface wind stress. So, whatever influence SST anomalies have upon the atmosphere in the ACW, the feedback upon the main pycnocline in the

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Warren B. White, Yi Chao, and Chang-Kou Tai

anomalous gain by the atmosphere instigating midlevel diabatic heating anomalies during autumn–winter that are balanced by vertical heat advection, yielding anomalous low-level convergence anomalies balanced by anomalous meridional advection of planetary vorticity; and with associated WSC anomalies in turn forcing the biennial oceanic Rossby waves via anomalous Ekman pumping. When these dynamical relationships are linked, they allow a simple analytic model for biennial coupled Rossby waves to be

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Peter D. Killworth and Jeffrey R. Blundell

1. Introduction Planetary waves are the main mechanism whereby information about one part of the ocean is transferred to another part. Interest in their properties was rekindled when the availability of satellite altimetry permitted observation of planetary waves ( Tokmakian and Challenor 1993 ), and the discovery by Chelton and Schlax (1996) that these waves appeared to be propagating at speeds up to twice those predicted by the linear vertical normal mode theory. Although there has been

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