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T. N. Krishnamurti

--ishighlighted. The planetary boundary layer is another area of investigation which has drawn much interest, especially overthe western Arabian Sea where the Somali jet exhibits interesting properties during summer monsoon. Thesestudies cover modeling, theoretical and observational areas. The onset and active monsoons were monitored by a large array of ship and research aircraR during MONEX.Studies in this area place an empfiasis on observational, theoretical stability analysis and numerical weatherprediction

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J. R. Garratt

horizontalmomentum is transferred from atmosphere to surfaceto be calculated. Taylor actually used wind observations made overSalisbury Plain and, utilizing his theory of eddy motionin the atmosphere (Taylor, 1915), derived a coefficientof '~2-3X 10-s. Sutcliffe also used pilot balloon windobservations made over similar countryside and calculated the ageostrophic wind components, yielding acoefficient ~ 4-7 X 10-a. A similar method gave 0.4 X 10-afrom observations over the sea. In the succeeding years

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Markus Gross, Hui Wan, Philip J. Rasch, Peter M. Caldwell, David L. Williamson, Daniel Klocke, Christiane Jablonowski, Diana R. Thatcher, Nigel Wood, Mike Cullen, Bob Beare, Martin Willett, Florian Lemarié, Eric Blayo, Sylvie Malardel, Piet Termonia, Almut Gassmann, Peter H. Lauritzen, Hans Johansen, Colin M. Zarzycki, Koichi Sakaguchi, and Ruby Leung

Modelling , Shinfield Park, Reading, United Kingdom, ECMWF, 113–135. Beljaars , A. , E. Dutra , G. Balsamo , and F. Lemarié , 2017 : On the numerical stability of surface–atmosphere coupling in weather and climate models . Geosci. Model Dev. , 10 , 977 – 989 , . 10.5194/gmd-10-977-2017 Best , M. J. , A. Beljaars , J. Polcher , and P. Viterbo , 2004 : A proposed structure for coupling tiled surfaces with the planetary boundary layer . J

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

-00304.1 Charney , J. , 1955 : The use of the primitive equations of motion in numerical prediction . Tellus , 7 , 22 – 26 , . 10.3402/tellusa.v7i1.8772 Charney , J. , and P. G. Drazin , 1961 : Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere . J. Geophys. Res. , 66 , 83 – 109 , . 10.1029/JZ066i001p00083 Chen , G. , J. Lu , D. A. Burrows , and L. R. Leung , 2015

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Roland A. Madden and Paul R. Julian

a: Wave-CISK in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 156-179. , 1974b: Wave-CISK and tropical spectra. J. Atmos. Sci., 31, 1447-1449.Lorenc, A. C., 1984: The evolution of planetary-scale 200-mb diver gent flow during the FGGE year. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 110, 427-441.Luther, D. S., 1980: Observations of long period waves in the tropical oceans and atmosphere. PhD. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 210 pp.McBride, J. L., 1983

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Andrew Staniforth and Jean Côté

of great importance to both the economy and topublic safety. Weather forecasters rely on guidanceprovided by numerical weather prediction (NWP), acomputer-intensive chain of operations beginning withthe collection of data from around the world and culminating in the production of weather charts and computer-worded messages. At the heart of the system arethe numerical models used to assimilate the data andto forecast future states of the atmosphere. The accuracy of the forecasts depends among

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Robert Wood

. Soc. , 133 , 213 – 226 . Hansen , J. E. , and L. D. Travis , 1974 : Light scattering in planetary atmospheres . Space Sci. Rev. , 16 , 527 – 610 . Hanson , H. P. , 1991 : Marine stratocumulus climatologies . Int. J. Climatol. , 11 , 147 – 164 . Hartmann , D. L. , 1994 : Global Physical Climatology . Academic Press, 408 pp . Hartmann , D. L. , and D. Short , 1980 : On the use of earth radiation budget statistics for studies of clouds and climate . J. Atmos. Sci. , 37

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

, keyaspects of the parameterization remain ad hoc due tothe lack of observations on such small scales. In thefollowing section, it will be shown that the presence ofmesoscale organization of convection makes theseproblems worse.c. Complications of mesoscale organization The role of cloud-scale downdrafts in removingconvective instability by cooling the planetary boundary layer has long been accepted. Over the last twodecades, however, the presence of unsaturated downdrafts on scales much larger than

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Daniel Keyser and M. A. Shapiro

tropospheric features during a period of intense convective storms. Preprints Eleventh Conf Severe Local Storms, Kansas City, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 41-48:.--, D. J. Perkey and J. M. Fritsch, 1981: Evolution of upper tro pospheric features during the development of a mesoscale con vective complex. J. Atmos. Sci., 38, 1664-1674.McWilliams, J. C., and P. R. Gent, 1980: Intermediate models of planetary circulations in the atmosphere and ocean. J. Atmos. Sci., 37, 1657-1678.Miller, J. E., 1948: On the

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Tammy M. Weckwerth and David B. Parsons

unstable SGP environment, with the vertical shear being much larger than in Florida, is a question for IHOP_2002 research. A key question for IHOP_2002 will be to place the findings from this region concerning mechanisms for convection initiation at boundaries into the context of studies in other regions. For example, Raymond (1995) has argued that the tropical atmosphere over the western Pacific warm pool is typically quite near the threshold for the onset of convection. One may, therefore

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