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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

, the SeaWinds Scatterometer on the Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) satellite can also provide accurate observations of sea surface vector winds (e.g., Liu et al. 1998 , 2000 ; Chelton et al. 2004 ). These high-quality satellite data can now resolve TIW-related mesoscale signals both in the atmosphere and in the ocean. In particular, satellite-based high-resolution measurements have shown observational evidence of mesoscale air–sea coupling related to TIWs in the eastern tropical oceans (e

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

from D3. Similarly, we define a local vertical shear vector using the same pressure levels (850–200 hPa) and center but averaged over a much smaller, 0.4° × 0.4°, domain. The planetary boundary layer (PBL) was parameterized with the Eta Mellor–Yamada 1.5-order local closure scheme ( Janjic 1990 , 1994 ), which includes a prognostic equation for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). Betts–Miller cumulus parameterization ( Betts 1986 ; Betts and Miller 1986 ) was used for D1 and D2 only, while cloud

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