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Daniel T. Eipper, George S. Young, Steven J. Greybush, Seth Saslo, Todd D. Sikora, and Richard D. Clark

computes planetary boundary layer height diagnostically using equilibrium turbulent kinetic energy ( Schmid and Niyogi 2012 ), we preferred to use the criterion of Barr and Betts (1997) , which is based on a straightforward thermodynamic interpretation of the CBL. Specifically, the CBL top (or Z i ) was determined manually as the lowest level within a layer lying atop a well-mixed layer in which became markedly more positive (below Z i , the area-averaged profile was often close to moist

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Leah S. Campbell and W. James Steenburgh

the highest resolution within the boundary layer, and a 5000-m-deep Rayleigh damping layer at the upper boundary. We performed a series of sensitivity studies using various microphysics, radiation, and planetary boundary layer and surface layer schemes (not shown). Based on the combination that best captured the observed precipitation distribution and taking into account microphysics and planetary boundary layer/surface layer sensitivity studies for lake-effect events presented in Reeves and

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Scott M. Steiger, Tyler Kranz, and Theodore W. Letcher

1. Introduction a. Lake-effect storms and OWLeS During the winter of 2013/14, scientists from 11 institutions gathered in upstate New York to conduct a first-of-its-kind field campaign on Lake Ontario–generated lake-effect snowstorms: the Ontario Winter Lake-Effect Systems (OWLeS; Kristovich et al. 2017 ) project. The University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft, heavily instrumented for in situ and remote sensing of the atmosphere; three Doppler-on-Wheels (DOW) radars; five rawinsonde

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