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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

case, the sun’s heat is spread throughout the mixed layer and warms each parcel of water by O (0.1°C) by midafternoon. In the latter case, warming is concentrated in the top 2 m and, consequently, more of this heat is likely to be transferred from the ocean back to the atmosphere over a short time scale. In between these extremes heat transport is more complicated. Warming of the lower half of the mixed layer, for example, lags the surface solar forcing by several hours because it depends on the

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

surface currents of 0.8 m s −1 associated with oceanic downwelling equatorial Rossby waves ( Rydbeck et al. 2017 ). Such currents might increase the speed differential at the ocean and atmosphere interface leading to enhanced latent heat fluxes. An additional simplification of the idealized CM1 simulations is the exclusion of planetary vorticity. While omitted in these simulations, the Coriolis force modulates the low-level divergence tendency [terms v and vi of Eq. (1) ]. Moreover, large

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Benjamin A. Toms, Susan C. van den Heever, Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Eric D. Maloney

according to its convective anomaly, its intraseasonal temporal scale and global spatial scale are substantially greater than that of typical mesoscale convective anomalies. How important are mesoscale deep convective structures to the description of the MJO? Do mesoscale convective structures interact cross scale with the planetary-scale structure of the MJO? These questions have been topics of research for decades, and as computational and observational capabilities have improved over recent years

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

1. Introduction Enthalpy flux from the warm ocean to the atmosphere sustains the heavy rainfall and destructive winds associated with tropical cyclones. Cooling of sea surface temperature (SST) due to storm-induced mixing with deeper ocean water inhibits cyclone intensity (e.g., Price 1981 ; Emanuel 1999 ; Schade and Emanuel 1999 ; Zedler et al. 2002 ; D’Asaro 2003 ; Emanuel 2003 ; Lloyd et al. 2011 ), while rapid intensification of cyclones has been observed in regions with anomalously

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Wei-Ting Chen, Shih-Pei Hsu, Yuan-Huai Tsai, and Chung-Hsiung Sui

envelope of MJO events as “building blocks” ( Nakazawa 1988 ; Majda et al. 2004 ; Mapes et al. 2006 ; Gottschalck et al. 2013 ) or become active as an independent mode ( Dunkerton and Crum 1995 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ). Significant ocean–atmosphere interactions can occur during the passage of the KWs ( Baranowski et al. 2016a ). The KWs can significantly modulate the tropical convection on synoptic scales (e.g., Takayabu 1991 ; Wheeler and Kiladis 1999 ; Wheeler et al. 2000 ; Wang and Fu

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

numerics of the MIT GCM. Proc. ECMWF Seminar Series on Numerical Methods: Recent Developments in Numerical Methods for Atmosphere and Ocean Modelling , Reading, United Kingdom, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 139–149 , . Bellenger , H. , and J.-P. Duvel , 2009 : An analysis of tropical ocean diurnal warm layers . J. Climate , 22 , 3629 – 3646 , . 10.1175/2008JCLI2598.1 Bogdanoff , A. S. , 2017

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