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Gabriel Wolf and Volkmar Wirth

to only use the synoptic- and smaller-scale part of the wind field for the semigeostrophic coordinate transformation. The rationale for this approach is that the quasi-stationary planetary waves can be considered as part of the background flow, which should not be included into the coordinate transformation. More specifically we use u g ([ s 1 , s 2 ]) and υ g ([ s 1 , s 2 ]) instead of u g and υ g in the semigeostrophic coordinate transformation in (9) and (10) , where the notation

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Andrea Schneidereit, Dieter H. W. Peters, Christian M. Grams, Julian F. Quinting, Julia H. Keller, Gabriel Wolf, Franziska Teubler, Michael Riemer, and Olivia Martius

( Tripathi et al. 2015 ). Matsuno (1971) developed a dynamical model of the stratospheric sudden warming phenomena in which tropospheric forced planetary wave packets propagate upward into the stratosphere. The deposition of their easterly angular momentum [Eliassen–Palm flux (EP flux) convergence] leads to a weakening and breakdown of the polar night jet. Several processes influence the occurrence of MSSW events in the Northern Hemisphere: the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) and the solar cycle (e

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Andrea Schneidereit, Silke Schubert, Pavel Vargin, Frank Lunkeit, Xiuhua Zhu, Dieter H. W. Peters, and Klaus Fraedrich

1. Introduction The summer of 2010 in Eurasia was characterized by anomalously high temperatures due to a blocking high centered over western Russia and, simultaneously, a large-scale shift of the Asian summer monsoon region associated with high precipitation and floods in Pakistan ( Blunden et al. 2011 ). The structure of the precipitation and the anomalously flow pattern of the Pakistan flood of 2010 is analyzed in more detail in Houze et al. (2011) . Both extreme phenomena, the heat wave

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

wavenumber, which measures the number of full wavelengths as one goes around the globe. Planetary-scale Rossby waves are typically characterized by zonal wavenumbers , whereas synoptic-scale Rossby waves are characterized by higher wavenumbers. Another idealized incarnation of a Rossby wave would be a single trough or ridge being equivalent to a single dipole of υ . However, except in very rare cases, a Rossby wave appears neither as a purely sinusoidal circumglobal wave nor as a single trough or ridge

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Yannick Barton, Paraskevi Giannakaki, Harald von Waldow, Clément Chevalier, Stephan Pfahl, and Olivia Martius

-level precursor . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 25 , 1435 – 1438 , doi: 10.1029/98GL50869 . Massacand , A. C. , H. Wernli , and H. C. Davies , 2001 : Influence of upstream diabatic heating upon an Alpine event of heavy precipitation . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 129 , 2822 – 2828 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<2822:IOUDHU>2.0.CO;2 . McIntyre , M. E. , and T. Palmer , 1983 : Breaking planetary waves in the stratosphere . Nature , 305 , 593 – 600 , doi: 10.1038/305593a0 . MeteoSwiss , 2013

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Maxi Boettcher and Heini Wernli

1. Introduction Meteorological research on diabatic Rossby waves (DRWs) has been intensifying in recent years after a DRW was detected for the first time in numerical weather prediction (NWP) model output for a high-impact weather event. According to a mesoscale model hindcast simulation, a DRW served as an important precursor to the “Lothar” storm after Christmas 1999, which was one of the most harmful winter storms over Europe in the last few decades ( Wernli et al. 2002 ). The explosive

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Hilke S. Lentink, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, and Sarah C. Jones

) and for more details on the computational methods]. The model is set up with a horizontal resolution of 0.025° (about 2.5 km at 35°N) and 57 vertical levels up to 30-km height, with an enhanced vertical resolution in the planetary boundary layer. Shallow convection is parameterized using the mass-flux scheme of Tiedtke (1989) , while middle and high convection are explicitly computed. For all parameterized processes, the default setup of COSMO is used ( Doms et al

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