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David C. Fritts, Ronald B. Smith, Michael J. Taylor, James D. Doyle, Stephen D. Eckermann, Andreas Dörnbrack, Markus Rapp, Bifford P. Williams, P.-Dominique Pautet, Katrina Bossert, Neal R. Criddle, Carolyn A. Reynolds, P. Alex Reinecke, Michael Uddstrom, Michael J. Revell, Richard Turner, Bernd Kaifler, Johannes S. Wagner, Tyler Mixa, Christopher G. Kruse, Alison D. Nugent, Campbell D. Watson, Sonja Gisinger, Steven M. Smith, Ruth S. Lieberman, Brian Laughman, James J. Moore, William O. Brown, Julie A. Haggerty, Alison Rockwell, Gregory J. Stossmeister, Steven F. Williams, Gonzalo Hernandez, Damian J. Murphy, Andrew R. Klekociuk, Iain M. Reid, and Jun Ma

, temperatures, and turbulence from ∼30 to 100 km and enabled studies of energy dissipation rates due to GW breaking, MW filtering during a stratospheric warming, and anomalous MLT mean structure accompanying strong planetary waves (PWs) in the Southern Hemisphere and other dynamics (e.g., Rapp et al. 2004 ; Wang et al. 2006 ; Goldberg et al. 2006 ). Multiple types of radars have quantified GW amplitudes, scales, spectral character, momentum fluxes, and evidence of various interaction and instability

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Markus Rapp, Bernd Kaifler, Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Tyler Mixa, Robert Reichert, Natalie Kaifler, Stefanie Knobloch, Ramona Eckert, Norman Wildmann, Andreas Giez, Lukas Krasauskas, Peter Preusse, Markus Geldenhuys, Martin Riese, Wolfgang Woiwode, Felix Friedl-Vallon, Björn-Martin Sinnhuber, Alejandro de la Torre, Peter Alexander, Jose Luis Hormaechea, Diego Janches, Markus Garhammer, Jorge L. Chau, J. Federico Conte, Peter Hoor, and Andreas Engel

, we show their respective anomalies VHOR*, Z *, and T * for August and September 2019 related to the 41-yr ERA5 climatological mean at 100 hPa in Fig. 5 . The warming and horizontal shift of the cold center of the polar vortex toward South America is clearly visible in the T * plots. The T * amplitude increased from August to September to values up to 25 K. Associated with this T anomaly is the Z anomaly that switched from a weak planetary wave-2 (PW2) pattern in August to a strong PW1

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