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Georgios Fragkoulidis and Volkmar Wirth

1. Introduction Rossby waves are a dominant feature of the midlatitude upper-tropospheric circulation at synoptic to planetary scales ( Rossby 1940 ; Haurwitz 1940 ). Owing their existence to the rotation and the spherical shape of Earth, they take the form of large-scale meanders in the westerly winds ( Rhines 2015 ). On the weather time scale, Rossby wave activity typically varies in longitude and time and tends to organize in the so-called Rossby wave packets (RWPs), rather than

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Vogel

( Matsuno 1966 ). Two other major wave types have been observed in the tropical belt that are not obtained from the shallow-water equations: the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 ) and westward traveling tropical disturbances (TDs) including easterly waves ( Riehl 1945 ). All these waves are collectively termed “tropical waves” in this paper. The spatiotemporal scales range from planetary and 30–90 days in the case of the MJO to synoptic and 1–3 days in the case of inertio

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